There are thousands and thousands of direct Genghis Khan's descendants in Kazakhstan. Genghis Khanites always were rulers in Kazakh Steppe till the abolition of Khan power at the beginnig of 19th century by the Russian colonial power.
Modern Khalkha-Mongols have no survived Genghis-Khanites. They probably killed all of the Genghis Khan descendants as foreign rulers.
Mongol version of the "Secret History" is a translation of the lost Turkic language original.
You can read about Turkic speaking Naimans, Kereits, Jalairs, Qongirats, etc, and of course, Uighurs, Tatars, in the Introduction to the book of Professor Paul Ratchnevski (just skip first few pages of the Contents):
Genealogy of Kazakhs:
For anybody who read the "Secret History" it is absolutely obvious that all the characters speak the same language. Genghis Khan, his relatives,a and so called "Mongols" - from one side, and Kereits (Keraits, Kereis), Qongirats (Ongirrats, Ungirrats, etc.), Naimans, Tatars, Uighurs, Onguts - Turkic peoples - from the other side. There are plenty of dialogs, tet-a-tet conversations, messages, etc. How all this can be explained?
Read about Genghis Khan and his so-called ""Mongols"" who all spoke Turkic language:
Turkic speaking groups (or tribes) like Kereits, Naimans, Jalairs, Qongyrats, Onguts (now Waqs or Uaks), Merkits, etc. should not be called "Mongols". They were Turks in 11-13th centuries, and they are Kazakh Turks today. See for example:
1007-1008 Conversion of 200,000 Kerait Turks
1007-1008 Conversion of 200,000 Kerait Turks to Nestorian Christianity
http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?breastle=1553&am p;am p;am p;C=1362
IGOR DE RACHEWILTZ, Turks in China under the Mongols: A Preliminary Investigation of Turco-Mongol Relations in the 13th and 14th Century, in: CHINA AMONG EQUALS - THE MIDDLE KINGDOM AND ITS NEIGHBORS, 10th - 14th CENTURIES, EDITED BY MORRIS ROSSABI, Chapter 10, University of California Press - Berkeley - Los Angeles – London, pp.281-310.
...We must not forget also that, as a young man and for many years, Chinggis Khan had been a client and an ally of the Kereyid court, and that he must inevitably have been exposed to Turkish culture through this close association. It is perhaps not fortuitous that the very title he assumed, Chinggis Khan, is of Turkish origin ...
Genghis Khan' "Mongols" were all Turkic speaking tribes - now parts of modern Kazakhs. Please read the following paper written by author of one of the latest translations of the Secret History (I fell guilty that I did not ask his permission for posting his paper on Internet):
Linguistical differences between Turkic nomads and Mongolian peoples like Khalkha, Kalmucks, Buryats, are tremendous now, and were so 800 years ago. Joshi had huge linguistical and cultural diifficulties when he was conquering Hori-Tumats - ancestors of modern Buryats.
On other side, Plano Carpini wrote that when he was in Karakorum, his interpretors were Comans - Kipchak Turks.
East of the Naimans, from the Orkhon in the west to the Onon and Kerulen rivers, was the new home of the Keraits. This is a group of people that had been disputed by Tao Zongyi to be Mongols, but Rashid ad-Din placed them in a subgroup with the Naimans, Uygurs, Kirghiz, Kipchaks and other Turkic peoples while acknowledging the resemblances between the Keraits and the Mongols (not Khalkha-Mongols! -A.). Still one more Chinese, Tu Ji, in his "History of the Mongols", assumed that the Keraits were Turkic and originated
...Keraits were Turkic and originated from Turkic Kangli and Ghuzz and their language was Turkic. It was also said that an important Kirghiz (Kazakh! - A.) tribe bears the name of Kirai, which is equivalent to Kerait. As to their Mongol characteristics, Paul Ratchnevscky assumed that some Khitans were left behind and got assimiliated into the Keraits. Paul Ratchnevsky emphasized the amicableness between the Keraits and West Khitans as exemplified by the fact that Kerait's khan, Toghrul, had once sought refuge in Western Liao. Paul Ratchnevsky mentioned that the Keraits accepted Nestorian faith and that the grandfather and father of Toghrul had Latin names like Marghus (Markus) and Qurjaquz (Kyriakus).
The importance of Keraits would lie in the fact that Genghis Khan sought the protection under Toghrul and their alliance laid the foundation for the uprise of the Mongols. Toghrul enjoyed a title called Wang Khan conferred by the Jurchens and hence an alliance with Toghrul served the purpose of elelvating Genghis Khan's position among the nomads. After exterminating the Tartars in AD 1202, Genghis Khan broke with Toghrul's Keraits, and Genghis Kan killed Toghrul in AD 1203 and took over Kerait throne.
Rene Grousset "Empire of the Steppes" Rutgers University Press :
p.191 "The Kerayit people are usually considered as Turks. " The legend of Mongol origins leaves no room for them, and it is hard to say whether the Kerayit were Mongols who had been strongly influenced by the Turks , or Turks, who were becoming Mongolized. In any event, many Kerayit titles were Turkic, and Togrul is a Turkic rather than a Mongol name" 5
5 Pelliot, "La Haute Asie", p.25
p.xxiv (13th line from bottom):
"...the Kerayit or Naimans, presumably Turkic, in the twelfth (century)..."
p.xxv (4 line from the top):
"...Nevertheless, history tells us that in Mongolia itself the Jenghis-Khanites mongolized many apparently Turkic tribes: the Naimans of the Altai, the Kerayits of the Gobi, and the Onguts of Chahar. Before the unification under Jenghis Khan which brought all these tribes under the Blue Mongols, part of present day Mongolia was Turkic; indeed even now a Turkic people, the Yakut, occupy northeastern Siberia, north of the Tungus, in Lene, Indigirka, and Kolyma basins. The presense of this Turkic group so near Bering Strait, north of the Mongols and even of the Tungus on the Arctic Ocean, neccesitates caution in attempts to determine the relative position of the "first" Turks, Mongols, and Tungus..."
All these ostensibly "Mongol" tribes still exist now within modern Kazakhs. See www.elim.kz
They were Turkic speakers in 10th-13th centuries and they are Turkic speakers today. They live in Eastern and Central Kazakhstan, in Northern half of Sinkiang province of China (Eastern Turkestan), and in western Mongolia today.
Turkic language has not been changed very much since the times of Orkhon inscriptions and Codex Cumanicus.
The "Turko-Mongols" of Genghis Khan are not related to the modern Mongols (Khalkha, Kalmucks, Buryats).
I can provide tons of similar citations as above from many Western books.
The 100% Turkic speaking groups and tribes are being called "Mongols"! All Western and other historians do know, and write in their books and papers, that all the "Secret History" tribes were Turkic speaking, and nevertheless they senselessly continue to call them "Mongols".
Russian censorship and chauvinistic propaganda did not allow Kazakhs and other non-Russian peoples of the ex-USSR to get information about their own history and heritage, only negative facts were allowed to know about nomads and their history. Khalkha-Mongols did not have such censorship.
Turkic language was widespread in all territory of the Great Steppe between Danube river and the Great Wall of China. Turkic nomads were in ceaseless motion and communication with each other, so their language was uniform over thousands and thousands miles with practically no even dialect differences. Settled peoples lived in their lands having almost no communication with each other - that's why they developed various dialects and different languages on their much smaller territories.
Speculations about changing names of groups or tribes is total nonsense. Imagine that somebody would try to allege that, say, Vyatichs or Krivichs were, say, Germanic tribes in 8th century, but then they "disappeared", but later, some Slav tribes "took their names", but these Slav Vyatichs and Krivichs "have absolutley nothing in common" with that "Germanic" Vyatichs and Krivichs
If Genghis Khan was a "real Mongol" then why the SACRED Burqan-Khaldun mountain (where Genghis Khan used to pray to Tengry - the traditional Turkic God - Heaven) now has a totally different Khalkha-Mongolian name? As well as many other Turkic geographical names of lakes, rivers, mountains, etc. mentioned in the "Secret History"?
Edited by Akskl, 26 May 2008 - 06:52 PM.