You bring up a very interesting point that I never really thought about enough to compare.
The Roma /Gypsies were persecuted and were targeted to be eliminated just like the Jews were in WWII.
After the war when the Allies were doling out other peoples lands and reforming countries boundaries to fit their(Allies) own needs rather then the citizens of the areas in question, why did the Jews get Israel and the gypsies get nothing?
Was it because the Jews had always wanted their homeland and the Gypsies had long ago given up the a dream of having an homeland and accepted the life of a traveler that they were not given a homeland too?
Was it that the Gypsies , being a loosely knit independent group were not as unified when this was happening,
Was it because so many more of them were wiped out ( because they originally were a smaller population that there were not as many to speak up after.
Does the fact that they did not get offered a homeland show an even deeper hate or distrust for then there was for the Jews among the Allied countries?
(Wouldn't that have been a way for the rest of Europe to rid themselves of the bother of Gypsies to have offered them a land of their own?)
Or were the Allies even more leery of giving the Gypsies any power base at all?
Please do not construe this as being either anti semitic or anti Gypsy, I am just making an observation.
I am not that well versed in the small details in the aftermath of WWII.
Maybe there was some sort of offer that the Gypsies refused. I just have never heard of any sort of reparations made to them.
Kaiselin, the questions you pose frame the perspective almost as if one intelligence and one decision could be taken into account: why did the Jewish people get a homeland and not the Gypsies? If one searches the web for the words: Israel and timeline, and you will see many author's perspectives on the events leading to the creation of the state of Israel. And, of course, these chronologies all make no distinction between the latter and the Arab/Israeli conflict. So you must dive into that conflict to understand where the Gypsies were in all this. Answer: They weren't even on the radar, politically speaking. That is, the Jewish emigration into Palestine presented a far more pressing problem.
Let's review some chronologies concerning the creation of the state of Israel. Strap your seat belts on, and please, take everything you read with a grain of salt. There is a lot of historical blurring between fact and fiction...
=================================================================First, an American point of view, from: http://www.trumanlib...el/palestin.htm
Compiled by Raymond H. Geselbracht from Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel (Westport, Connecticut, 1997) by Michael T. Benson
May 17, 1939: British White Paper on Palestine
May 25, 1939: Senator Harry S. Truman inserts in the Congressional Record strong criticism of the British White Paper on Palestine, saying it is a dishonorable repudiation by Britain of her obligations.
August 24, 1945: Loy Henderson, director of the State Department's Near East Agency, writes to Secretary of State James Byrnes that the United States would lose its moral prestige in the Middle East if it supported Jewish aspirations in Palestine.
August 24, 1945: The report of the Intergovernment Committee on Refugees, called the Harrison Report, is presented to President Truman. The report is very critical of the treatment by Allied forces of refugees, particularly Jewish refugees, in Germany.
August 31, 1945: President Truman writes British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, citing the Harrison Report and urging Attlee to allow a reasonable number of Europe's Jews to emigrate to Palestine.
October 22, 1945: Senators Robert Wagner of New York and Robert Taft of Ohio introduce a resolution expressing support for a Jewish state in Palestine.
November 13, 1945: The British government announces the formation of an Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry to investigate Britain's handling of the Palestine situation. The committee begins work on January 4, 1946.
November 29, 1945: At a press conference, President Truman expresses opposition to the Taft-Wagner resolution. He says he wants to await and consider the report of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry.
April 20, 1946: The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry submits its report, which recommends that Britain immediately authorize the admission of 100,000 Jews into Palestine.
May 8, 1946: President Truman writes to Prime Minister Attlee, citing the report of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, and expressing the hope that Britain would begin lifting the barriers to Jewish immigration to Palestine.
June 21, 1946: A Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum to the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee warns that if the United States uses armed force to support the implementation of the recommendations of the report of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, the Soviet Union might be able to increase its power and influence in the Middle East, and United States access to Middle East oil could be jeopardized.
September 24, 1946: Counsel to the President Clark Clifford writes to the President to warn that the Soviet Union wishes to achieve complete economic, military and political domination in the Middle East. Toward this end, Clifford argues, they will encourage the emigration of Jews from Europe into Palestine and at the same time denounce British and American policies toward Palestine and inflame the Arabs against these policies.
October 4, 1946: On the eve of Yom Kippur, President Truman issues a statement indicating United States support for the creation of a "viable Jewish state."
October 23, 1946: Loy Henderson, director of the State Department's Near East Agency, warns that the immigration of Jewish Communists into Palestine will increase Soviet influence there.
October 28, 1946: President Truman writes to King Saud of Saudi Arabia, informing the king that he believes "that a national home for the Jewish people should be established in Palestine."
1947-48: The White House receives 48,600 telegrams, 790,575 cards, and 81,200 other pieces of mail on the subject of Palestine.
February 7, 1947: The British government announces that it will terminate its mandate for Palestine.
February 14, 1947: The British government announces that it will refer the problem of the future of Palestine to the United Nations.
April 2, 1947: The British Government submits to the General Assembly of the United Nations an account of its administration of Palestine under the League of Nations mandate, and asks the General Assembly to make recommendations regarding the future government of Palestine.
May 13, 1947: The United Nations General Assembly appoints an eleven nation Special Committee on Palestine to study the Palestine problem and report by September 1947.
August 31, 1947: The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine issues its report, which recommends unanimously (all 11 member states voting in favor) that Great Britain terminate their mandate for Palestine and grant it independence at the earliest possible date; and which also recommends by majority vote (7 of the member nations voting in favor) that Palestine be partitioned into Jewish and Arab states.
September 17, 1947: Secretary of State George Marshall, in an address to the United Nations, indicates that the United States is reluctant to endorse the partition of Palestine.
September 22, 1947: Loy Henderson, director the State Department's Near East Agency, addresses a memorandum to Secretary of State George Marshall in which he argues against United States' advocacy of the United Nations proposal to partition Palestine.
October 10, 1947: The Joint Chiefs of Staff argue in a memorandum entitled "The Problem of Palestine" that the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states would enable the Soviet Union to replace the United States and Great Britain in the region and would endanger United States access to Middle East oil.
October 11, 1947: Herschel Johnson, United States deputy representative on the United Nations Security Council, announces United States support for the partition plan of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine.
October 17, 1947: President Truman writes to Senator Claude Pepper: "I received about 35,000 pieces of mail and propaganda from the Jews in this country while this matter [the issue of the partition of Palestine, which was being considered by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine from May 13, 1947 to August 31, 1947] was pending. I put it all in a pile and struck a match to it -- I never looked at a single one of the letters because I felt the United Nations Committee [United Nations Special Committee on Palestine] was acting in a judicial capacity and should not be interfered with."
Ca. November 1947: A subcommittee of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine establishes a timetable for British withdrawal from Palestine.
November 19, 1947: Chaim Weizmann meets with President Truman and argues that the Negev region has great importance to the future Jewish state.
November 24, 1947: Secretary of State George Marshall writes to Under Secretary of State Robert Lovett to inform him that British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin had told him that British intelligence indicated that Jewish groups moving illegally from the Balkan states to Palestine included many Communists.
November 29, 1947: The United Nations General Assembly approves the partition plan for Palestine put forward by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. The 1947 UN Partition divided the area into three entities: a Jewish state, an Arab state, and an international zone around Jerusalem.
December 2, 1947: President Truman writes to former Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., encouraging him to tell his Jewish friends that it is time for restraint and caution. "The vote in the U.N.," Truman wrote, "is only the beginning and the Jews must now display tolerance and consideration for the other people in Palestine with whom they will necessarily have to be neighbors."
December 5, 1947: Secretary of State George Marshall announces that the State Department is imposing an embargo on all shipments of arms to the Middle East.
December 12, 1947: President Truman writes to Chaim Weizmann, president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization, that it is essential that restraint and tolerance be exercised by all parties if a peaceful settlement is to be reached in the Middle East.
February 4, 1948: Chaim Wiezmann, president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization, arrives in New York.
February 12, 1948: Secretary of Defense James Forrestal says at a meeting of the National Security Council that any serious attempt to implement partition in Palestine would set in motion events that would result in at least a partial mobilization of United States armed forces.
February 19, 1948: Secretary of State George Marshall says at a press conference, when asked if the United States would continue to support partition, that the "whole Palestine thing," was under "constant consideration."
February 21, 1948: Eddie Jacobson, a longtime and close personal friend of President Truman, sends atelegram to Truman, asking him to meet with Chaim Weizmann, the president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization.
February 22, 1948: President Truman instructs Secretary of State George Marshall that while he approves in principle a draft prepared by the State Department of a position paper which mentions as a possible contingency a United Nations trusteeship for Palestine, he does not want anything presented to the United Nations Security Council that could be interpreted as a change from the position in favor of partition that the United States announced in the General Assembly on November 29, 1947. He further instructs Marshall to send him for review the final draft of the remarks that Warren Austin, the United States representative to the United Nations, is to give before the Security Council on March 19, 1948.
February 27, 1948: President Truman writes to his friend Eddie Jacobson, refusing to meet with Chaim Weizmann, the president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization.
March 8, 1948: Counsel to the President Clark Clifford writes to President Truman, in a memorandum entitled "United States Policy with Regard to Palestine," that Truman's actions in support of partition are "in complete conformity with the settled policy of the United States."
March 9, 1948: Secretary of State George Marshall instructs Warren Austin, United States representative to the United Nations, that if a United Nations special assembly on Palestine were convened, the United States would support a United Nations trusteeship for Palestine.
March 12, 1948: The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine reports that "present indications point to the inescapable conclusion that when the [British] mandate is terminated, Palestine is likely to suffer severely from administrative chaos and widespread strife and bloodshed."
March 13, 1948: President Truman's friend Eddie Jacobson walks into the White House without an appointment and pleads with Truman to meet with Chaim Weizmann, the president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization. Truman responds: "You win, you baldheaded son-of-a-bitch. I will see him."
March 18, 1948: President Truman meets with Chaim Weizmann, the president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization. Truman says he wishes to see justice done in Palestine without bloodshed, and that if the Jewish state were declared and the United Nations remained stalled in its attempt to establish a temporary trusteeship over Palestine, the United States would recognize the new state immediately.
March 18, 1948: The United Nations Special Commission on Palestine reports to the United Nations Security Council that it has failed to arrange any compromise between Jews and Arabs, and it recommends that the United Nations undertake a temporary trusteeship for Palestine in order to restore peace.
March 19, 1948: United States representative to the United Nations Warren Austin announces to the United Nations Security Council that the United States position is that the partition of Palestine is no longer a viable option.
March 20, 1948: Secretary of State George Marshall announces that the United States will seek to work within the United Nations to bring a peaceful settlement to Palestine, and that the proposal for a temporary United Nations trusteeship for Palestine is the only idea presently being considered that will allow the United Nations to address the difficult situation in Palestine.
March 21, 1948: President Truman writes in his diary regarding the confusion caused by the State Department's handling of the trusteeship issue: "I spend the day trying to right what has happened. No luck. Marshall makes a statement. Doesn't help a bit."
March 21, 1948: President Truman writes to his sister Mary Jane Truman that the "striped pants conspirators" in the State Department had "completely balled up the Palestine situation." But, he writes, "it may work out anyway in spite of them."
March 22, 1948: President Truman writes to his brother Vivian Truman regarding Palestine: "I think the proper thing to do, and the thing I have been doing, is to do what I think is right and let them all go to hell."
March 25, 1948: President Truman says at a press conference that a United Nations trusteeship for Palestine would be only a temporary measure, intended to establish the peaceful conditions that would be the essential foundation for a final political settlement. He says that trusteeship is not a substitute for partition.
April 11, 1948: President Truman's friend Eddie Jacobson enters the White House unnoticed by the East Gate and meets with Truman. Jacobson recorded of this meeting: "He reaffirmed, very strongly, the promises he had made to Dr. Weizmann and to me; and he gave me permission to tell Dr. Weizmann so, which I did. It was at this meeting that I also discussed with the President the vital matter of recognizing the new state, and to this he agreed with a whole heart."
May 12, 1948: President Truman meets in the Oval Office with Secretary of State George Marshall, Under Secretary of State Robert Lovett, Counsel to the President Clark Clifford and several others to discuss the Palestine situation. Clifford argues in favor of recognizing the new Jewish state in accordance with the United Nations resolution of November 29, 1947. Marshall opposes Clifford's arguments, and contends they are based on domestic political considerations. He says that if Truman follows Clifford's advice and recognizes the Jewish state, then he (Marshall) would vote against Truman in the election. Truman does not clearly state his views in the meeting.
May 12, 13, and 14, 1948: Counsel to the President Clark Clifford and Under Secretary of State Robert Lovett discuss the different views held in the White House and the State Department regarding whether the United States should recognize the Jewish state. Lovett reports to Clifford on May 14 that Marshall will neither support nor oppose Truman's plan to recognize the Jewish state, that he will stay out of the entire matter.
May 13, 1948: Chaim Weizmann, president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the World Zionist Organization, writes to President Truman: "I deeply hope that the United States, which under your leadership has done so much to find a just solution [to the Palestine situation], will promptly recognize the Provisional Government of the new Jewish state. The world, I think, would regard it as especially appropriate that the greatest living democracy should be the first to welcome the newest into the family of nations."
May 14, 1948: late morning eastern standard time (late afternoon in Palestine): David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, reads a "Declaration of Independence," which proclaims the existence of a Jewish state called Israel beginning on May 15, 1948, at 12:00 midnight Palestine time (6:00 p.m., May 14, 1948,eastern standard time).
May 14, 1948, 6 p.m. eastern standard time (12:00 midnight in Palestine): The British mandate for Palestine expires, and the state of Israel comes into being.
May 14, 1948, 6:11 p.m. eastern standard time: The United States recognizes Israel on a de facto basis. The White House issues the following statement: "This Government has been informed that a Jewish state has been proclaimed in Palestine, and recognition has been requested by the provisional government thereof. The United States recognizes the provisional government as the de facto authority of the State of Israel." To see a color copy of this document click here.
May 14, 1948, shortly after 6:11 p.m. eastern standard time: United States representative to the United Nations Warren Austin leaves his office at the United Nations and goes home. Secretary of State Marshall sends a State Department official to the United Nations to prevent the entire United States delegation from resigning.
May 15, 1948: On May 15, 1948, the Arab states issued their response statement and Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq attack Israel.
January 25, 1949: A permanent government takes office in Israel following popular elections.
January 31, 1949: The United States recognizes Israel on a de jure basis.
February 24 to July 20, 1949: Israel signs armistice agreements with Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.
Compiled by Raymond H. Geselbracht from Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel (Westport, Connecticut, 1997) by Michael T. Benson
I'm just getting started...From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia....flict#1938-1949
November 2, 1917
Balfour Declaration 1917: British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sends a letter to Lord Rothschild, President of the Zionist Federation, declaring his government would "view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people".
In the third Aliyah, roughly 40,000 Jews arrive in Palestine, mostly from Eastern Europe.
January 18 1919
Faisal-Weizmann Agreement between Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization). "We Arabs," said Faisal, "especially the educated among us, look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement... We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home."
March 1, 1920
Jewish settlements in the Upper Galilee were attacked by Arab forces. Joseph Trumpeldor was among 8 who died defending Tel Hai.
Jerusalem pogrom of 1920 April 4-April 7. The violent 3-day riot against the Jews in Jerusalem's Old City prompts the establishment of Haganah on June 15, 1920.
May 1-7, 1921
May 8, 1921
British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel pardons Palestinian Jews and Arabs involved in the 1920 disturbances, including Mohammad Amin al-Husayni.
Under Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill, Britain splits the mandate of Palestine into the territories of Palestine (west of the Jordan river) and Transjordan. In return for leading the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, the Hashemites are given rule over Transjordan to form an Arab state under British supremacy. Jewish settlement is restricted to the remaining Palestine..
June 3, 1922
The Churchill White Paper, 1922 clarifies the British position regarding Palestine.
July 24, 1922
The League of Nations grants Britain a mandate to administer Palestine. British express interest in Zionism, and describe their main intent of developing a Jewish national home.
In the fourth Aliyah, roughly 82,000 Jews fleeing from anti-Semitism in Hungary and Poland, arrive in Palestine.
In the fifth Aliyah, due in part to the rise of Nazism in Germany, approximately 250,000 Jews arrived in Palestine during this period. However, restrictions imposed on Jewish immigration by the British authorities in response to events such as the Great Uprising curbed Jewish immigration in the later 1930's.
The 1929 Palestine riots erupt due to a dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall. 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded (mostly by Arabs); 116 Arabs killed and 232 wounded (mostly by British-commanded police and soldiers).
August 23, 1929
In the 1929 Hebron massacre, Arab rioters rape women and kill 67 Hebron Jews. The British evacuate he Jewish communities in the Arab enclaves of Hebron and Gaza "to prevent another massacre", ending the ancient Jewish presence in the cities. Both communities would resume after the 1967 War.
The Black Hand Islamist group led by Shaykh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam uses violence against Jewish civilians and the British.
October 20, 1930
In reaction to the disturbances of 1929, the Passfield White Paper and the Hope Simpson Royal Commission recommend limiting Jewish immigration.
May 7, 1936 — March 1939
The Arab leadership, led by Amin al-Husayni, declares a general strike which rapidly deteriorates into a violent rebellion, known as the Arab revolt, that lasts for three years. The mainstream Jewish defense organization, the Haganah, maintains a policy of restraint, but the smaller Irgun (also called Etzel) group adopts a policy of retaliation and revenge. Roughly 5000 Arabs and 400 Jews are killed.
The Peel Commission proposes a partition plan (map), rejected by the Arab leadership as it included a Jewish state. The Jewish opinion was divided as Jewish immigration was limited to only 12,000, and the Twentieth Zionist Congress ultimately rejected the proposal as well.
Lehi (group) (also known as the Stern Gang), as well as other militant Zionist groups, attack British and Arab targets and civilians in Palestine. 1944-1948 the Irgun and then Haganah join in on anti-British attacks.
26 July 1938
Revisionist Zionists detonate a bomb in an Arab Melon market in Haifa, killing 53 Arabs, one Jew and wounding at least 46 more Arabs.
April — August 1938
The Woodhead Commission reverses the Peel Commission's findings, considers two alternative partition plans, known as Plan B (map) and Plan C (map), and reports in November that partition was impracticable. ()
October 2, 1938
In the 1938 Tiberias massacre, Arabs murder 20 Jews in the city of Tiberias.
February — March 17, 1939
The St. James Conference ends without making any progress as the Arab delegation refuses to recognize or meet with its Jewish counterpart.
May 17, 1939
The White Paper of 1939 calls for the creation of a unified Palestinian state. Even though the White Paper states its commitment to the Balfour Declaration, it imposed very substantial limits to both Jewish immigration (restricting it to only 75,000 over the next 5 years), and their ability to purchase land.
Between 1939-1948, the Haganah smuggles over 100,000 Jews from Europe to Palestine to provide refuge from the Holocaust.
On 19 June twenty Arabs were killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at a marketplace in Haifa. June 29, 13 Arabs were killed in multiple shootings during one-hour period.
May 1, 1946
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry proposes admission of 100,000 Jewish refugees into the Mandate.
July 22, 1946
King David Hotel Bombing. Irgun members detonate bombs in the basement of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, where the British had brought a large amount of documents confiscated from the Jewish Agency. The attack kills 91 people and injures 45 more, mostly civilians. The hotel was a center of British administration at the time, although Arabs and Jews were also victims. The Jewish National Council condemns the attack.
February 18, 1947
Great Britain announces intention to hand the Mandate to the United Nations.
November 29, 1947
With a two-thirds majority international vote, the UN General Assembly passes a Partition Plan dividing the British Mandate of Palestine into two states. The Jewish leadership accepts the plan, but the Arab leadership rejects it.
December 30, 1947
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre. Irgun militants hurl two bombs into a crowd of Arab workers from a passing vehicle, killing 6 workers and wounding 42, damaging the relative peace between the two groups in Haifa. Skirmishes continue in Haifa and around the region.
November 30, 1947
Following the announcement of the Partition Plan, Palestinian Arabs react violently and fighting broke out leading to the "first phase" of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, also known as the "civil war".
December 2-5, 1947
1947 Jerusalem riots. The Arab Higher Committee declared a strike and public protest of the vote. Arabs marching to Zion Square on December 2 were stopped by the British, and the Arabs instead turned towards the commercial center of the City, burning many buildings and shops. Violence continued for two more days, with Arab mobs attacking a number of Jewish neighborhoods. 70 Jews and 50 Arabs are killed.
May 14, 1948
Israel declares Independence from British rule, before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight.
Here's someone who attempts to greatly summarize events. Notice how sometimes the truth gets buried when you leave out too many details?From: http://www.freewebs....us/timeline.htm
1880s: Zionist movement born in Europe.
1917: Britain took over Palestine, issued Balfour Declaration, which promised Jews a state in Palestine.
1919: Faisal-Weizermann Agreement: Arab-Jewish co-operation on development of Jewish state in Palestine.
1920 – 1930: Jewish exodus from Europe to Palestine, majority illegally. Jewish/Zionist agents bought up land from Arab landowners who lived elsewhere; local Arabs angered at alienation, resulting in the 1929 riots.
1936: Great Uprising, Arabs protested, some peacefully, but certain groups violently. Great Uprising lasted 3 years.
1937: The Peel Commission; Britain proposed partition of Palestine between Jews & Arabs. Both parties refused.
1938: Woodhead Commission repealed the Peel Commission; proposed a tiny Jewish state of 1250 sq. km.; Jews strongly rejected it.
1939: White Paper of 1939 proposed one state solution, with government jointly comprised of Arabs and Jews. Also limited Jewish immigration and land transfers to Jews, due to growth of Arab population. Both Arabs and Jews rejected it for varoius reasons.
1947: UN proposes a partition plan, calling for an independent Jewish state and allocating them half of Palestine. Palestinians rejected the proposal as being unfair since the Jews owned only about 6% of the land, as well as being only a third of the population.
1948: Britain leaves Palestine. The Zionists announce the Declaration of Israel as a Jewish State, endorsed by the UN. Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordon, Saudi Arabia, declare war on Israel.
1949: Israel signs Armistice Agreements, giving it control of 78% of Palestine. Israel offers to allow families separated by the war to return, to unfreeze refugee accounts in Israeli banks, and to pay compensation for abandoned lands. Arabs refused to participate on the grounds that they did not recognize Israel as legitimate. Israel takes back the offer, forbids refugees to return. The families of the refugees and their descendents continue to live in refugee camps.
=================================================================Back to our pursuit of the truth, or at least alternative biases. A pro-Arab view, from: http://www.doublesta...pales_time.html
With the outbreak of World War I, Britain promised the independence of Arab lands under Ottoman rule, including Palestine, in return for Arab support against Turkey which had entered the war on the side of Germany.
Britain and France signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the Arab region into zones of influence. Lebanon and Syria were assigned to France, Jordan and Iraq to Britain and Palestine was to be internationalized.
Aided by the Arabs, the British captured Palestine from the Ottoman Turks. The Arabs revolted against the Turks because the British had promised them, in correspondence with Shareef Husein ibn Ali of Mecca, the independence of their countries after the war. Britain, however, also made other, conflicting commitments in the secret Sykes-Picot agreement with France and Russia (1916), in which it promised to divide and rule the region with its allies. In a third agreement, the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Britain promised the Jews a Jewish "national home" in Palestine.
After WW I ended, Jews began to migrate to Palestine, which was set aside as a British mandate with the approval of the League of Nations in 1922. Large-scale Jewish settlement and extensive Zionist agricultural and industrial enterprises in Palestine began during the British mandatory period, which lasted until 1948. (Zionism is the political movement and ideology that supports a Jewish homeland in the "Promised Land".)
The Palestinians convened their first National Conference and expressed their opposition to the Balfour Declaration.
The San Remo Conference granted Britain a mandate over Palestine. and two years later Palestine was effectively under British administration. Sir Herbert Samuel, a declared Zionist, was sent as Britain's first High Commissioner to Palestine.
The Council of the League of Nations issued a Mandate for Palestine.
Large-scale attacks on Jews by Arabs rocked Jerusalem. Palestinians killed 133 Jews and suffered 116 deaths, sparked by a dispute over use of the Western Wall of Al-Aqsa Mosque. But the roots of the conflict lay deeper in Arab fears of the Zionist movement which aimed to make at least part of British-administered Palestine a Jewish state.
The Palestinians held a six-month General Strike to protest against the confiscation of land and Jewish immigration.
The Peel Commission, headed by Lord Robert Peel, issued a report. Basically, the commission concluded, the mandate in Palestine was unworkable. There was no hope of any cooperative national entity there that included both Arabs and Jews. The commission went on to recommend the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and a neutral sacred-site state to be administered by Britain.
The British government published a White Paper restricting Jewish immigration and offering independence for Palestine within ten years. This was rejected by the Zionists, who then organized terrorist groups and launched a bloody campaign against the British and the Palestinians.
After the assassination of a British minister, Jewish terrorist groups such as the Stern gang intensified the violence against the British occupiers and the Arab population, using techniques such as nail bombs in Arab markets and the bomb attack in the King David hotel in Jerusalem killing 91 people, including fellow Jews. After 1945 large numbers of Jewish refugees made their way to Palestine, although the British attempted to restrict immigration.
In December the UN passed resolution 181 giving the Jewish population (33% of the total population) 55% of the British mandate of Palestine. The Zionist leaders mostly accepted the partition, but the Arab League was against the establishment of a Jewish colony on their lands. In a fascinating essay by King Abdullah of Jordan in November 1947, he asks why after the tragedy of the holocaust that Jews suffered during World War II, America and Europe are refusing to accept more than a token handful of Jewish immigrants and refugees. It is unfair, he argues, to make Palestine, which is innocent of anti-Semitism, pay for the crimes of Europe.
09 April 1948
Early in the morning commandos of the Irgun (headed by future Prime Minister Menachem Begin) and the Stern Gang attacked Deir Yassin, a village with about 750 Palestinian residents. In all over 100 men, women, and children were systematically murdered. This was done deliberately to terrorise the Palestinians and to cause them to flee.
“Menachem Begin said "The massacre was not only justified, but there would not have been a state of Israel without the victory at Deir Yassin." Unashamed of their deed and unaffected by world condemnation, the Zionist forces, using loud-speakers, roamed the streets of cities warning Arab inhabitants "The Jericho road is still open," they told Jerusalem Arabs "Fly from Jerusalem before you are killed, like those in Deir Yassin."”
After the withdrawal of the British from Palestine, the Jews declared the state of Israel. The state of Israel calls itself a 'Jewish democracy' although the inherent contradiction between a state based on ethnicity and democracy should be obvious. By the same logic one might call Germany under Hitler an 'Aryan democracy'. Although there are elections and a relatively free press (arguably much more free than the press in the US), the Israeli propaganda about 'the only democracy in the Middle East' is demonstrably misleading.
The Israelis purchased arms with financial help from American Jews, fought the invading Arab forces and used terror tactics to gain as much territory as possible.
After the armistice Israel had expanded its territory to 78% of Palestine, and around 750,000 Palestinians had fled their homes. Although Israeli propaganda often states that the Arab population was ordered to leave by radio, or by local leaders, research has disproved this.
I would like to add one thing to the last chronology I presented, above. It does not necessarily represent my own views, but I was deliberately seeking the opposing viewpoint on the conflict. Even taking what is common between all of these chronologies is perilous. For example, see the Wikipedia page concerning the Deir Yassin "Massacre": http://en.wikipedia....#Ongoing_debate
. I honestly don't know what is fact or fiction anymore, but I believe there is more bias in this last chronology, just from the editorializing of the author. And so I feel obligated to editorialize here as well.
Right. So there you have it. About the Gypsies. I hope you get my point. [Explanation for those who are a bit too busy to read all of this: the world was a bit too busy to deal with the Gypsies at the time.]