They were translating, but their translations were not calques. That is what I have been trying to say all along.
Look at the modern Chinese translations for the names of the planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, which are indeed calques, and you may see what I mean by "not calques".
If you still don't see what I mean, then it is FIN from me as well.
The etymology of the Chinese names for the planets "Mars," "Mercury," "Jupiter," "Venus," and "Saturn" is completely irrelevant to the question of whether the ancient Chinese names of the days of the weeks were calques of their Western counterparts. The Chinese names for the five planets that are visible from Earth without the aid of a telescope are much older than the Tang Dynasty, when you claim that the concept of the seven-day week was introduced to China. These names (水星/水曜, 木星/木曜, etc.) can be found in texts of the Zhou and Han eras. All that the Chinese did when they were introduced to the concept of the seven-day week was calque the Western name for each of the seven days by translating the name of the celestial body that appears in each day's name (Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, or Saturn) with the Chinese language's pre-existing name for the same celestial body, and translating the element that means "day" (day
in English, dies
in Latin, etc.) with the Classical Chinese word 日, which means "sun; daytime; day, date," etc. The ancient Chinese names for the days of the week are definitely calques of some ancient Western language's names for the days of the week, and I doubt that you should find any scholar who would dispute this.
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are irrelevant. There is no day of the week named after any of them. (Besides, no ancient language had any names for them; these planets were first discovered in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, subsequent to the invention of the telescope, so their names were necessarily coined very recently.)
All that is important is the following, in addition to the accepted fact that the direction of conceptual transmission was from West to East rather than the reverse:
Latin: Dies Solis (i.e. "Sun's Day," from dies
"day" + solis
Ancient Chinese: 日曜日 (i.e. "Sun Day," from 日曜 "the Sun (as an astronomical object)" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Lunae (i.e. "Moon's Day," from dies
"day" + lunae
Ancient Chinese: 月曜日 (i.e. "Moon Day," from 月曜 "the Moon (as an astronomical object)" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Martis (i.e. "Mars' Day," from dies
"day" + martis
Ancient Chinese: 火曜日 (i.e. "Mars Day," from 火曜 "Mars" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Mercurii (i.e. "Mercury's Day," from dies
"day" + mercurii
Ancient Chinese: 水曜日 (i.e. "Mercury Day," from 水曜 "Mercury" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Jovis (i.e. "Jupiter's Day," from dies
"day" + jovis
Ancient Chinese: 木曜日 (i.e. "Jupiter Day," from 木曜 "Jupiter" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Veneris (i.e. "Venus' Day," from dies
"day" + veneris
Ancient Chinese: 金曜日 (i.e. "Venus Day," from 金曜 "Venus" + 日 "day")
Latin: Dies Saturni (i.e. "Saturn's Day," from dies
"day" + saturni
Ancient Chinese: 土曜日 (i.e. "Saturn Day," from 土曜 "Saturn" + 日 "day")
Edited by Moonstone, 08 December 2008 - 01:04 AM.