To be honest here, the Zhou were first recognized in the Shang oracle bones as adversaries, then as allies and finally as adversaries. Yet both the Zhou and the Shang are now considered to be precursors to the Han people. Even though Erligang culture is quite different than the earlier Erlitou culture, archaeological evidence suggests that Erligang culture (probably Early Shang) replaced Erlitou culture (theoretically the mythical Xia dynasty) entirely. The Shang themselves had clusters of settlements surrounded by non-Shang peoples.
I'm not sure how you will perceive the examples I give so I try to find some simple ones. Easter Island should make it evident enough the Island is pretty small and its inhabitants reflect a single identity throughout the island due to the same kinds of statues found clustered over the entire island. Tribe I learned is what political entities are named for like nation state/state and chiefdom due to the kinds of economical and power distribution or hierarchy imposed and structured by the various ethnic groups and they progress and get larger as they accumulate more separate peoples under its political affiliation. It also implies Han is made up of extremely diverse peoples starting since the neolithic period.
What the ethnogenesis of the Han people implies that:
1) Han Chinese are not pure. Han are mixed to a certain degree, but they are generally genetically coherent. Coherency, not purity, is the key word here. (So there are minimal cases of 'Sinicized Yue' or 'Sinicized Altaics', since the Han population was too large to take their populations into altering the ethnogenesis of Han people.)
2) Han Chinese are not a melting pot either. If it were a melting pot, then we'd be seeing constant genetic inconsistencies between Han populations, which isn't the case. There is generally minimal genetic difference between Han Chinese, even North and South we do see a spectrum. (This is the claim that Sinophobes like to make against Han Chinese, that Southern Han are 'Sinicized Vietnamese' or that Northern Han are 'Sinicized Altaics'.)
Studies state that:
1) Han Chinese are generally genetically coherent.
2) Han Chinese in a certain region are more closely related to each other as well as native ethnic minorities inhabiting the same region.
3) Han Chinese living in urban municipalities and cities are quite diverse, suggesting migration from various parts of China.
Y-chromosome haplogroup O3 is a common DNA marker in Han Chinese, as it appeared in China in prehistoric times. It is found in more than 50% of Chinese males, and ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of the Han ethnicity. However, the mitochondrial DNA of Han Chinese increases in diversity as one looks from northern to southern China, which suggests that some male migrants from northern China married with women from local peoples after arriving in Guangdong, Fujian, and other regions of southern China. Despite this, tests comparing the genetic profiles of northern Han, southern Han and southern natives determined that haplogroups O1b-M110, O2a1-M88 and O3d-M7, which are prevalent in southern natives, were only observed in some southern Hans (4% on average), but not in northern Hans. Therefore, this proves that the contribution of southern natives in southern Hans is limited. In contrast, there are consistent strong genetic similarities in the Y chromosome haplogroup distribution between the southern and northern Chinese population, and the result of principal component analysis indicates almost all Han populations form a tight cluster in their Y chromosome. Additionally, the estimated contribution of northern Hans to southern Hans is substantial in both paternal and maternal lineages and a geographic cline exists for mtDNA. As a result, the northern Hans are the primary contributors to the gene pool of the southern Hans. However, it is noteworthy that the expansion process was dominated by males, as is shown by a greater contribution to the Y-chromosome than the mtDNA from northern Hans to southern Hans. These genetic observations are in line with historical records of continuous and large migratory waves of northern China inhabitants escaping warfare and famine, to southern China. Aside from these large migratory waves, other smaller southward migrations also occurred during almost all periods in the past two millennia. Moreover, a study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences into the gene frequency data of Han subpopulations and ethnic minorities in China, showed that Han subpopulations in different regions are also genetically close to the local ethnic minorities, and it means that in many cases blood of ethnic minorities has mixed into Han, while at the same time, blood of Han also has mixed into the local ethnicities. A recent, and to date the most extensive, genome-wide association study of the Han population shows that little geographic-genetic dispersion from north to south has occurred. Ultimately, with the exception in some ethnolinguistic branches of the Han Chinese, such as Pinghua, there is a coherent genetic structure in all Han Chinese populace.
Edited by bloodmerchant, 13 March 2011 - 12:24 AM.