Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese
A.D. 1603 - Manila, Philippines
24,000 massacred by Spaniards when Ming Mandarins
visited the islands sparking fears of Chinese dominance.
A.D. 1662 - Manila, Philippines
30,000 put to sea and expelled from the Philippines.
Those caught outside the Parian (Manila's Chinese
ghetto) were beheaded immediately.
A.D. 1639-1640 - Manila, Philippines
20,000 die in anti-Chinese violence
A.D. 1686 - Manila, Philippines
A.D. 1740 - Batavia, Indonesia (Batavian Fury)
10,000 Chinese slaughtered by Dutch when the Chinese
objected to forced removals to Sri Lanka as slave
A.D. 1763 - Manila, Philippines
Anti- Chinese violence
A.D. 1792 - Cholon, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)
10,000 Chinese massacred in the Tay Son movement's
retaking of Cholon from Nguyen Anh who in 1780 had
proclaimed himself the new Nguyen ruler. According to
Nguyen records, Nhac of Tay Son lost one of his closest
aides, killed by Nguyen troops who happened to be ethnic
Chinese. In revenge, Nhac ordered the killing of ethnic
Chinese in the city including the women and children. It
has been speculated that this act was also to destroy the
ethnic Chinese commercial monopoly.
A.D. 1823 - South Borneo
10,000-20,000 Chinese massacred when Chinese "kongsi"
resisted the withdrawal and reselling of mining
concession to the Dutch by local Sultans due to
monetary jealousy and rivalry.
ca. A.D. 1824-1851 Reign of Rama III - Thailand
A band of Chinese insurgents capture and loot the city
of Chachengsao, causing the majority of the Siamese
population to flee the city. The government successfully
dispatched troops to put down the affair. After a few
confrontations one of the rebel leaders changed sides
and led his troops to capture the other rebel leaders. The
rest of the rebels soon fled the city and were surrounded
by the government troops. The town folk returned and
initiated a massacre. Some Chinese tried to flee by
becoming monks, but were not spared and many hanged
themselves to avoid the slaughter. Deaths numbered in
A.D. 1857 - Sarawak, North Borneo
2,000-5,000 Chinese massacred by Raja Brooke when a
Hakka gold-mining "kongsi" failed to murder him. Liu
Shanbang led 600-armed miners from Bau Lama to attack
Kuching on the 18th of February 1857. He succeeded in
the attack but James Brooke escaped unhurt. Liu became
the de facto 'Rajah' of Sarawak for 5 days from the 19th
to the 23rd of February after which Liu and his men
retreated to Bau when Tuan Muda Charles Brooke with
his Dayak force from 2nd Division (Sri Aman) retaliated.
Liu Shanbang was killed at Jugan, Siniawan on or about
the 24th of February. His men and their families were
mostly killed or suffocated to death by the Rajah's men at
Mau San and Ghost Cave areas with some managing to
escape to Indonesia.
A.D. 1871 - Los Angeles, California, USA
19 Chinese die when white Los Angeles citizens go bezerk
after the accidental killing of a white man by a Chinese
A.D. 1877 - Chico, California, USA
A.D. 1885 - Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA
A.D. 1887 - Snake River, Oregon, USA
31 Chinese miners massacred in a 2-day orgy of violence.
A.D. 1890s - San Francisco & Seattle, USA
Thousands of Chinese were assaulted in "pigtail cutting
parties" by unemployed white vigilantes frightened by
the Yellow Peril frenzy.
A.D. 1942 - Singapore (Operation Sook Ching)
70,699 Chinese tortured and/or killed by Japanese
Kempeitai in Colonel Tsuji Masanobu's "Sook Ching" or
Purification/Ethnic Cleansing in reprisals for overseas
Chinese support of mainland China against the Japanese
A.D. 1942 - Malaya (Operation Sook Ching)
40,000 Chinese killed by Japanese Kempetai in the
continuation of the Singapore Sook Ching.
A.D. 1946 - Malaya
The withdrawal of Japanese troops created a power
vacuum in Malaya. The predominately Chinese MPAJA
representing the victorious Allied forces with the approval
of the British, streamed out of the jungles to assume
control of towns and villages to impose law and order
prior to the British arrival. However, brutal reprisals and
witchhunts of Japanese collaborators and police personnel,
many of which were from the Japanese favoured Malay
population polarised the conflict along racial lines. Malays
retaliated with a fiery brand of Malay mysticism, Islam and
martial arts, forming the Red Band under Kiyai (Tok Guru)
Salleh and the Sabilillah. The Japanese, angered by the
MPAJA guerrilla activities during the occupation, joined the
Malays in the Batu Pahat area of Johor state to clear the
area of Chinese elements. The fighing spread thoughout
Malaya with the worst fighting occuring in Northern Johor
and central Perak states. Thousands died in the fighting
with large areas cleared of Chinese settlers who were
forced to flee to the larger cities.
A.D. 1948 - Batang Kali, Malaya
14 British soldiers in search of communist guerrillas in the ethnic Chinese village of Batang Kali, opened fire on unarmed men and torched the village.
A.D. 1965-1966 - Indonesia
500,000 killed in anti-communist violence, many were
local Chinese suspected of communist activities, others
were those who joined the PKI (Parti Kommunis Indonesia)
ignorant of the ideology but attracted by it's stance for
defending worker rights, while many others were innocent
victims caught in the frenzied bloodletting of racial
jealousy and animosity.
A.D. 1969 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1500-2000 Chinese dead from racial rioting sparked by
Chinese electoral victories in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur
which prevented the formation of a Malay dominated state
goverment in Selangor and the 2/3 majority in Parliment
required to push through constitutional amendments
without a referendum.
A.D. 1998 - Jakarta, Indonesia
Thousands of Chinese businesses and homes were burnt,
looted and smashed when rampaging youths, chafting
under the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, blamed the Chinese
for their sufferings and rioted in the streets of Jakarta.
Untold numbers of Chinese were killed, Chinese girls were
gang-raped and houses plundered. The Indonesian police,
unable or unwilling to stop the violence, prompted residents
of housing estates to band together to erect barricades,
arm themselves and to employ armed guards to patrol the
Edited by Liang Jieming, 14 December 2008 - 12:09 PM.