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Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese


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#1 Liang Jieming

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 08:17 AM

Something I put together.

Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese

A.D. 1603 - Manila, Philippines
24,000 massacred by Spaniards when Ming Mandarins
visited the islands sparking fears of Chinese dominance.

A.D. 1662 - Manila, Philippines
30,000 put to sea and expelled from the Philippines.
Those caught outside the Parian (Manila's Chinese
ghetto) were beheaded immediately.

A.D. 1639-1640 - Manila, Philippines
20,000 die in anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1686 - Manila, Philippines
Anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1740 - Batavia, Indonesia (Batavian Fury)
10,000 Chinese slaughtered by Dutch when the Chinese
objected to forced removals to Sri Lanka as slave
labour.

A.D. 1763 - Manila, Philippines
Anti- Chinese violence

A.D. 1792 - Cholon, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)
10,000 Chinese massacred in the Tay Son movement's
retaking of Cholon from Nguyen Anh who in 1780 had
proclaimed himself the new Nguyen ruler. According to
Nguyen records, Nhac of Tay Son lost one of his closest
aides, killed by Nguyen troops who happened to be ethnic
Chinese. In revenge, Nhac ordered the killing of ethnic
Chinese in the city including the women and children. It
has been speculated that this act was also to destroy the
ethnic Chinese commercial monopoly.

A.D. 1823 - South Borneo
10,000-20,000 Chinese massacred when Chinese "kongsi"
resisted the withdrawal and reselling of mining
concession to the Dutch by local Sultans due to
monetary jealousy and rivalry.

ca. A.D. 1824-1851 Reign of Rama III - Thailand
A band of Chinese insurgents capture and loot the city
of Chachengsao, causing the majority of the Siamese
population to flee the city. The government successfully
dispatched troops to put down the affair. After a few
confrontations one of the rebel leaders changed sides
and led his troops to capture the other rebel leaders. The
rest of the rebels soon fled the city and were surrounded
by the government troops. The town folk returned and
initiated a massacre. Some Chinese tried to flee by
becoming monks, but were not spared and many hanged
themselves to avoid the slaughter. Deaths numbered in
the thousands.

A.D. 1857 - Sarawak, North Borneo
2,000-5,000 Chinese massacred by Raja Brooke when a
Hakka gold-mining "kongsi" failed to murder him. Liu
Shanbang led 600-armed miners from Bau Lama to attack
Kuching on the 18th of February 1857. He succeeded in
the attack but James Brooke escaped unhurt. Liu became
the de facto 'Rajah' of Sarawak for 5 days from the 19th
to the 23rd of February after which Liu and his men
retreated to Bau when Tuan Muda Charles Brooke with
his Dayak force from 2nd Division (Sri Aman) retaliated.
Liu Shanbang was killed at Jugan, Siniawan on or about
the 24th of February. His men and their families were
mostly killed or suffocated to death by the Rajah's men at
Mau San and Ghost Cave areas with some managing to
escape to Indonesia.

A.D. 1871 - Los Angeles, California, USA
19 Chinese die when white Los Angeles citizens go bezerk
after the accidental killing of a white man by a Chinese
laborer.

A.D. 1877 - Chico, California, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1885 - Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1887 - Snake River, Oregon, USA
31 Chinese miners massacred in a 2-day orgy of violence.

A.D. 1890s - San Francisco & Seattle, USA
Thousands of Chinese were assaulted in "pigtail cutting
parties" by unemployed white vigilantes frightened by
the Yellow Peril frenzy.

A.D. 1942 - Singapore (Operation Sook Ching)
70,699 Chinese tortured and/or killed by Japanese
Kempeitai in Colonel Tsuji Masanobu's "Sook Ching" or
Purification/Ethnic Cleansing in reprisals for overseas
Chinese support of mainland China against the Japanese
invasion.

A.D. 1942 - Malaya (Operation Sook Ching)
40,000 Chinese killed by Japanese Kempetai in the
continuation of the Singapore Sook Ching.

A.D. 1946 - Malaya
The withdrawal of Japanese troops created a power
vacuum in Malaya. The predominately Chinese MPAJA
representing the victorious Allied forces with the approval
of the British, streamed out of the jungles to assume
control of towns and villages to impose law and order
prior to the British arrival. However, brutal reprisals and
witchhunts of Japanese collaborators and police personnel,
many of which were from the Japanese favoured Malay
population polarised the conflict along racial lines. Malays
retaliated with a fiery brand of Malay mysticism, Islam and
martial arts, forming the Red Band under Kiyai (Tok Guru)
Salleh and the Sabilillah. The Japanese, angered by the
MPAJA guerrilla activities during the occupation, joined the
Malays in the Batu Pahat area of Johor state to clear the
area of Chinese elements. The fighing spread thoughout
Malaya with the worst fighting occuring in Northern Johor
and central Perak states. Thousands died in the fighting
with large areas cleared of Chinese settlers who were
forced to flee to the larger cities.

A.D. 1948 - Batang Kali, Malaya
14 British soldiers in search of communist guerrillas in the ethnic Chinese village of Batang Kali, opened fire on unarmed men and torched the village.

A.D. 1965-1966 - Indonesia
500,000 killed in anti-communist violence, many were
local Chinese suspected of communist activities, others
were those who joined the PKI (Parti Kommunis Indonesia)
ignorant of the ideology but attracted by it's stance for
defending worker rights, while many others were innocent
victims caught in the frenzied bloodletting of racial
jealousy and animosity.

A.D. 1969 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1500-2000 Chinese dead from racial rioting sparked by
Chinese electoral victories in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur
which prevented the formation of a Malay dominated state
goverment in Selangor and the 2/3 majority in Parliment
required to push through constitutional amendments
without a referendum.

A.D. 1998 - Jakarta, Indonesia
Thousands of Chinese businesses and homes were burnt,
looted and smashed when rampaging youths, chafting
under the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, blamed the Chinese
for their sufferings and rioted in the streets of Jakarta.
Untold numbers of Chinese were killed, Chinese girls were
gang-raped and houses plundered. The Indonesian police,
unable or unwilling to stop the violence, prompted residents
of housing estates to band together to erect barricades,
arm themselves and to employ armed guards to patrol the
streets.

Liang Jieming
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Edited by Liang Jieming, 14 December 2008 - 12:09 PM.


#2 Sephodwyrm

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 03:58 PM

Remember all this well. We do not need to exact the payment by blood, but we must understand that such took place because no one had any respects for China. Such can only be stopped when China rises as a powerful nation and exert her influence in the righteous way.
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#3 adoo

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 04:33 PM

Add this:

in the early 1980s, in Detroit, MI, Vincent Chin was beaten to death, with baseball bats, by two un-employed Anglo auto workers, who had mistaken Chin to be Japanese.

Chin's co-workers, all Anglos, were hosting a bachelor party for him, at a Bar/Restaurent. The 2 unemployed, father and son, interrrupted the party and hurled anti-Japanese insults at Chinn. Chinn's Anglo co-workers assured the 2 than he was not Japanese; but to no avail. The 2 bashed Chin's head open w baseball bats.

At the eventual trial, despite testamonies, from bar patrons and Chin's co-workers, identifying tthe murderers and corroborating their murderous acts, the 2 were found not guilty.

#4 Yun

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 09:50 PM

A.D. 1603 - Manila, Phillipines
24,000 massacred by Spaniards when Ming Mandarins
visited the islands sparking fears of Chinese dominance.


My material states a second massacre as happening in the winter of 1639-1640, and my recent research essay on Ming maritime history also makes mention of it (the number of deaths is given as 20,000). Two more anti-Chinese massacres took place in Manila in 1686 and 1763.

I would disagree that these early cases were a result of European contempt for China. Instead, China until the mid-18th century was generally held in high regard by Europeans, and it was out of fear of Chinese power that the Spanish periodically lapsed into xenophobic atrocities. After all, the Spanish colonial garrison in Manila was greatly outnumbered by the Chinese community. The number of Chinese in Manila by 1603 was larger than the populations of New York and Philadelphia in 1770, and more than double Boston's 1770 population!

On the other hand, it was a general disregard and contempt for overseas Chinese within the Chinese imperial court that usually doomed them to be at the mercy of Europeans. Chinese who settled outside the empire were considered to have forsaken the protection of the emperor, and to be traitors to civilisation. This mentality is seen in the fact that in 1740, when the Dutch massacred the Chinese in Batavia, the Qing court did discuss possible punitive action - but only out of consideration for the welfare of Chinese merchants based on the south China coast who regularly sailed to Batavia to trade, and not to seek justice for those Chinese who had actually settled down in Batavia and been killed (since they were seen as deserving their fate):

"The Qing did give serious thought to taking punitive measures in 1740. This should caution us against too sweeping a claim that China was a 'world empire' that could see nothing to be gained from involvements with economies beyond its own borders. Indeed, one of the major arguments in favour of a trade embargo to punish the Dutch for the massacre was that if not properly chastened, the Dutch might mistreat the next group of Chinese who came to trade, just as they had mistreated their long-term Chinese residents. The major argument against a ban was the deleterious effect it would have on the lives of hundreds of thousands of people on the south China coast. The crucial distinction was that those who remained based in China were entitled to imperial protection when they traded with and traveled to southeast Asia; but those who settled elsewhere were not." (Kenneth Pomeranz, "The Great Divergence" p. 203 - bold face added by me)
The dead have passed beyond our power to honour or dishonour them, but not beyond our ability to try and understand.

#5 thirdgumi

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 10:10 PM

Let's take one minute of silence for them.
Human is evil by nature - Xun Zi

Therefor, its existence is a crime, and the punishment is death - thirdgumi

#6 Liang Jieming

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 10:24 PM

My material states a second massacre as happening in the winter of 1639-1640, and my recent research essay on Ming maritime history also makes mention of it (the number of deaths is given as 20,000). Two more anti-Chinese massacres took place in Manila in 1686 and 1763.


Hmm... ok thanks Yun. Didn't know about these other ones. Will add them.

I would disagree that these early cases were a result of European contempt for China. Instead, China until the mid-18th century was generally held in high regard by Europeans, and it was out of fear of Chinese power that the Spanish periodically lapsed into xenophobic atrocities.

On the other hand, it was a general disregard and contempt for overseas Chinese within the Chinese imperial court that usually doomed them to be at the mercy of Europeans.


Ya, the Spanish and the Dutch especially were fearful of the Chinese becoming too powerful. After all they only had a handful of people with them controlling a huge native population. However, they feared the native population less than they feared the local Chinese because of the potential for an extension of power from China. But sadly, no such support came from China. Instead the Chinese government looked with disdain at the overseas Chinese and left them to the mercies of the colonial governments. Unlike European colonists who can always turn to their own countries for support, the Chinese were left to fend for themselves with no recourse even to return to China.

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#7 Liang Jieming

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 10:31 PM

At the eventual trial, despite testamonies,  from bar patrons and Chin's co-workers, identifying tthe murderers and corroborating their murderous acts,  the 2 were found not guilty.

<{POST_SNAPBACK}>


Do you know why they were found not guilty?

Jieming
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#8 snowybeagle

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Posted 31 October 2004 - 10:42 PM

Do you know why they were found not guilty?

Jieming
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<{POST_SNAPBACK}>


You can find out more with a Yahoo! search by entering "who killed vincent chin".

It was made into a documentary by Christine Choy in the late 80s.

#9 TMPikachu

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Posted 01 November 2004 - 08:21 PM

Add this:

in the early 1980s, in Detroit, MI, Vincent Chin was beaten to death, with baseball bats, by two un-employed Anglo auto workers, who had mistaken Chin to be Japanese. 

Chin's co-workers, all Anglos, were hosting a bachelor party for him, at a Bar/Restaurent.  The 2 unemployed, father and son, interrrupted the party and hurled anti-Japanese insults at Chinn.  Chinn's Anglo co-workers assured the 2 than he was not Japanese; but to no avail.  The 2 bashed Chin's head open w baseball bats.

At the eventual trial, despite testamonies,  from bar patrons and Chin's co-workers, identifying tthe murderers and corroborating their murderous acts,  the 2 were found not guilty.

<{POST_SNAPBACK}>


actually, in the bar, the two men attacked him (without bats). Chin fought the two drunks and won. He left afterwards. They followed him home, ambushed him with bats, and killed him. Just a little fact most people overlook, Chin was not a weak man.

The men were not found guilty, the judge said "these aren't the sort of men to commit murder"

They had killed Chin, believing that he was Japanese, because their car plant was shut down. They believed Japanese car companies had caused that to happen (which is probably true, but no justification for their act).
"the way has more than one name, and wise men have more than one method. Knowledge is such that it may suit all countries, so that all creatures may be saved..."

#10 Guest_ignorant_fool_*

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 02:57 AM

Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese
A.D. 1998 - Jakarta, Indonesia
Thousands of Chinese businesses and homes were burnt,
looted and smashed when rampaging youths, chafting
under the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, blamed the Chinese
for their sufferings and rioted in the streets of Jakarta.
Untold numbers of Chinese were killed, Chinese girls were
gang-raped and houses plundered.  The Indonesian police,
unable or unwilling to stop the violence, prompted residents
of housing estates to band together to erect barricades,
arm themselves and to employ armed guards to patrol the
streets.

Liang Jieming
http://groups.yahoo....ragonSeedLegacy

<{POST_SNAPBACK}>

This is very vague. Please do more research. Indonesian goverment promised a in-depth report which till now, never was shown/explained to the public. During that period, a very sad friend told me that his house was burnt down, he is an indonesian chinese who cant speak/write/read chinese and he is not rich (ie poor family, low income). Another one told me, he knows the family (during that time) whose 3 daughters were gang-raped and burnt to death when the house was burnt down. IIRC, only the parents survived.

It resurfaced again when present/newly-elected vice-president was very recently quoted as saying in the indonesian newspaper, saying (translated by somebody, cant remember properly but the gist is there) "big companies(or chinese) should be isolated if not they will burnt and attacked like the 1998 riot". A clear anti-chinese racism quote from a top ranking government official. In 1998 riot, the chinese are targeted.

A few days ago, a minister (cabinet minister, cant remember which post, but IIRC outside of his jurisdiction) personally raided a Chinese restaurant with alleged chinese prostitutes inside. He did this without notifying immigration and police. Amusing ridiculousness. Imagine a minister with his supposedly heavy work and top-level task job for the country, went down personally to raid a chinese restaurant without following proper protocol and procedure.

There are other recent cases of incidents which can be easily and clearly interpreted as anti-chinese behaviours/actions. I was told it is pretty common since all these years and till now and in the future too (they are certain of it). Indonesian chinese are bracing for further anti-chinese racism incidents esp with the anti-chinese actions taken and words spoken by top-ranking government officials.

#11 Liang Jieming

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 03:13 AM

This is very vague. Please do more research.


Hi IF,

Yeah it definitely goes deeper and murkier than just this brief summary. It was written partly the news articles of the riots in local papers and partly from info provided by a friend who lives in Jakarta and has since started moving his whole family to Australia because of this fear of more rioting.

Jieming

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 03:30 AM

Liang Jieming,
No prob. Just in case you misunderstood, that was not critising you. That was just a personal request. Just hope to be clearer and prevent misunderstanding.

#13 Liang Jieming

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 04:29 AM

Liang Jieming,
No prob. Just in case you misunderstood, that was not critising you. That was just a personal request. Just hope to be clearer and prevent misunderstanding.

<{POST_SNAPBACK}>

Hey no worries. I'll definitely take up your suggestion to do more research. This happened very recently and not many Indonesia Chinese like talking about it but I've been hearing a few stories whispered here and there. Unfortunately what I've heard to date is only from the Chinese side of things and nothing from the non-chinese point of view as yet.

One story related to me told about how a lady who was chatting with her grandmother in a lift in hokkien (I believe) was told by two young men in the same lift to speak Bahasa Indonesia because they were in Indonesia or they should go back to China.

Such incidents are still very common in Indonesia. If you are interested, you should join some of the Indonesian Chinese forums which are surprisingly very, very active. Only draw back is you'll need to be able to read Indonesian as that's the medium they use. I can kinda follow what they write because I can read Bahasa Malaysia which is close enough but it takes me a long time to read even 1 post let alone participate in their rapid discussions, and writing a post of my own is fairly difficult as terms used are very different.

Jieming

#14 Guest_ignorant_fool_*

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 06:08 AM

Liang Jieming,
Can you pass me the link? I will pass them to my friends. Thanks.

#15 Guest_IronMouse_*

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Posted 03 November 2004 - 10:03 PM

Let's face it, the Indonesian government is unbelievably corrupt and whenever the economy is doing badly in Indonesia (whether due to corruption or meddling by the IMF and/or World Bank), people look for scape goats. The Chinese community is a handy scapegoat because some of them are very rich, tend to keep to themselves and hire mostly Indonesians at low wages. There are also religious differences as well, namely between Indonesia's large Muslim population and the Chinese minority.

And so, whenever the government looks bad in the eyes of the ordinary Indonesians, they deflect all the blame onto the rich Chinese. And guess what, the average poor Indonesian believes them and then riots and violence happens. So even poor ethnic Chinese get attacked.

What is unusual about the Chinese is that they're not particularly politically active. This is going to hurt them in the future. When you think about it, many other richer ethnic minority groups tend to lobby local governments to protect their rights. Despite all this violence against the ethnic Chinese, they DON'T participate in politics. Weird. In this day and age, it's important they do.




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