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Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese


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#361 sg_han

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Posted 24 July 2006 - 06:19 PM

Well, i feel sorry for my Indonesian Chinese brothers and sisters. I've heard a lot about the 1998 saga in Indonesia. Apparently, it's really inhumane and horrible. Til today, the Indonesian Chinese still live in suspicion and fear that the 1998 saga might resurface.

My Indonesian Chinese friend told me how the Indonesian Chinese adults had to arm themselves to protect their neighbourhood from the native Indonesians and how the Indonesian police watch the attacks without doing anything, some even participated. Til today, they still get threats of another attack on Chinese neighbourhoods yet the Indon government ignores their pleadings and non of those participated in the 1998 attacks were arrested.


no worries it is now illegal to discriminate against indonesia-born chinese.
大韓民國의國歌-愛國歌

#362 LYY

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Posted 24 July 2006 - 09:03 PM

no worries it is now illegal to discriminate against indonesia-born chinese.


since when it is legalized in Indonesia to enforce violence against another human being?

#363 LYY

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Posted 24 July 2006 - 09:09 PM

until another round human right intrusion, let's not worry too much. :jump:

tsunamies, earthquakes and valcano eruptions ... nature has her way to get even.

#364 sg_han

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Posted 25 July 2006 - 06:43 AM

since when it is legalized in Indonesia to enforce violence against another human being?



it wasnt legal but the people took matters into their own hand with the aid of gov.you should always bear in mind the income disparity between the natives and chinese...

you should be happy that it is now OFFICIALLY ILLEGAL to discriminate against indonesia born chinese

Edited by sg_han, 25 July 2006 - 06:50 AM.

大韓民國의國歌-愛國歌

#365 Kimchee

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Posted 03 August 2006 - 04:32 PM

I've just finished reading this thread from start to finish... I said that I came to this forum to learn and learn I have. My heart breaks for all of those Chinese souls who were tortured and killed and for those who still deal with injustice everyday.

But, I'm angry about the American media on how they have a tendency to "gloss over" or ignore certain things and blow others way out of proportion. It makes me absolutely crazy. This is why I try to read foreign press or watch English speaking foreign news broadcasts... or seek out forums such as this, to see if I'm missing anything. Boy, am I!!!

I remember hearing about Chinese Americans gathering in protest... but never knew exactly why at the time. Now I know. I feel there should have been better coverage of the events to help enlist people of other backgrounds to help. How can this improve?

I'm an American, yet I just don't seem to understand my countrymen's attitudes at times... do they not care because Indonesia is so far away?? Is it because the majority are of European backgrounds, and they don't identify with the suffering of Overseas Chinese? I just don't get it.

As far as that man, Mr. Chin who was killed by that father and son in that bar incident... that was a sin. Those two, probably drunken and ingorant knuckleheads, got off by a technicality in our court system... well, it's not perfect. And unfortunately, things like that happen and it's absolutely unacceptable. Just like when someone is falsely accused of murder and IS executed. :cry^: But, I firmly believe what goes around, comes around. Bad Karma, begets bad Karma. That father and son will have to answer to their maker sooner or later. And the same goes for the Indonesian government for not punishing those who have commited such heinous crimes. I hate to be in their shoes.

Thank you all for sharing your thoughts.

Kim
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#366 Fechin

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Posted 29 August 2006 - 11:49 PM

Something I put together.

Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese

A.D. 1603 - Manila, Philippines
24,000 massacred by Spaniards when Ming Mandarins
visited the islands sparking fears of Chinese dominance.

A.D. 1662 - Manila, Philippines
30,000 put to sea and expelled from the Philippines.
Those caught outside the Parian (Manila's Chinese
ghetto) were beheaded immediately.

A.D. 1639-1640 - Manila, Philippines
20,000 die in anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1686 - Manila, Philippines
Anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1740 - Batavia, Indonesia (Batavian Fury)
10,000 Chinese slaughtered by Dutch when the Chinese
objected to forced removals to Sri Lanka as slave
labour.

A.D. 1763 - Manila, Philippines
Anti- Chinese violence

A.D. 1792 - Cholon, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)
10,000 Chinese massacred in the Tay Son movement's
retaking of Cholon from Nguyen Anh who in 1780 had
proclaimed himself the new Nguyen ruler. According to
Nguyen records, Nhac of Tay Son lost one of his closest
aides, killed by Nguyen troops who happened to be ethnic
Chinese. In revenge, Nhac ordered the killing of ethnic
Chinese in the city including the women and children. It
has been speculated that this act was also to destroy the
ethnic Chinese commercial monopoly.

A.D. 1823 - South Borneo
10,000-20,000 Chinese massacred when Chinese "kongsi"
resisted the withdrawal and reselling of mining
concession to the Dutch by local Sultans due to
monetary jealousy and rivalry.

ca. A.D. 1824-1851 Reign of Rama III - Thailand
A band of Chinese insurgents capture and loot the city
of Chachengsao, causing the majority of the Siamese
population to flee the city. The government successfully
dispatched troops to put down the affair. After a few
confrontations one of the rebel leaders changed sides
and led his troops to capture the other rebel leaders. The
rest of the rebels soon fled the city and were surrounded
by the government troops. The town folk returned and
initiated a massacre. Some Chinese tried to flee by
becoming monks, but were not spared and many hanged
themselves to avoid the slaughter. Deaths numbered in
the thousands.

A.D. 1857 - Sarawak, North Borneo
2,000-5,000 Chinese massacred by Raja Brooke when a
Hakka gold-mining "kongsi" failed to murder him. Liu
Shanbang led 600-armed miners from Bau Lama to attack
Kuching on the 18th of February 1857. He succeeded in
the attack but James Brooke escaped unhurt. Liu became
the de facto 'Rajah' of Sarawak for 5 days from the 19th
to the 23rd of February after which Liu and his men
retreated to Bau when Tuan Muda Charles Brooke with
his Dayak force from 2nd Division (Sri Aman) retaliated.
Liu Shanbang was killed at Jugan, Siniawan on or about
the 24th of February. His men and their families were
mostly killed or suffocated to death by the Rajah's men at
Mau San and Ghost Cave areas with some managing to
escape to Indonesia.

A.D. 1871 - Los Angeles, California, USA
19 Chinese die when white Los Angeles citizens go bezerk
after the accidental killing of a white man by a Chinese
laborer.

A.D. 1877 - Chico, California, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1885 - Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1887 - Snake River, Oregon, USA
31 Chinese miners massacred in a 2-day orgy of violence.

A.D. 1890s - San Francisco & Seattle, USA
Thousands of Chinese were assaulted in "pigtail cutting
parties" by unemployed white vigilantes frightened by
the Yellow Peril frenzy.

A.D. 1942 - Singapore (Operation Sook Ching)
70,699 Chinese tortured and/or killed by Japanese
Kempeitai in Colonel Tsuji Masanobu's "Sook Ching" or
Purification/Ethnic Cleansing in reprisals for overseas
Chinese support of mainland China against the Japanese
invasion.

A.D. 1942 - Malaya (Operation Sook Ching)
40,000 Chinese killed by Japanese Kempetai in the
continuation of the Singapore Sook Ching.

A.D. 1946 - Malaya
The withdrawal of Japanese troops created a power
vacuum in Malaya. The predominately Chinese MPAJA
representing the victorious Allied forces with the approval
of the British, streamed out of the jungles to assume
control of towns and villages to impose law and order
prior to the British arrival. However, brutal reprisals and
witchhunts of Japanese collaborators and police personnel,
many of which were from the Japanese favoured Malay
population polarised the conflict along racial lines. Malays
retaliated with a fiery brand of Malay mysticism, Islam and
martial arts, forming the Red Band under Kiyai (Tok Guru)
Salleh and the Sabilillah. The Japanese, angered by the
MPAJA guerrilla activities during the occupation, joined the
Malays in the Batu Pahat area of Johor state to clear the
area of Chinese elements. The fighing spread thoughout
Malaya with the worst fighting occuring in Northern Johor
and central Perak states. Thousands died in the fighting
with large areas cleared of Chinese settlers who were
forced to flee to the larger cities.

A.D. 1965-1966 - Indonesia
500,000 killed in anti-communist violence, many were
local Chinese suspected of communist activities, others
were those who joined the PKI (Parti Kommunis Indonesia)
ignorant of the ideology but attracted by it's stance for
defending worker rights, while many others were innocent
victims caught in the frenzied bloodletting of racial
jealousy and animosity.

A.D. 1969 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1500-2000 Chinese dead from racial rioting sparked by
Chinese electoral victories in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur
which prevented the formation of a Malay dominated state
goverment in Selangor and the 2/3 majority in Parliment
required to push through constitutional amendments
without a referendum.

A.D. 1998 - Jakarta, Indonesia
Thousands of Chinese businesses and homes were burnt,
looted and smashed when rampaging youths, chafting
under the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, blamed the Chinese
for their sufferings and rioted in the streets of Jakarta.
Untold numbers of Chinese were killed, Chinese girls were
gang-raped and houses plundered. The Indonesian police,
unable or unwilling to stop the violence, prompted residents
of housing estates to band together to erect barricades,
arm themselves and to employ armed guards to patrol the
streets.

Liang Jieming
http://groups.yahoo....ragonSeedLegacy



Add "1975-Vietnam expelled 300 thousand Chinese to sea"

Add "1975-Cambodia esentially killed all cambodia Chinese"

#367 sg_han

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Posted 30 August 2006 - 07:33 AM

singapore is the only place where we didnt have to be a minority=)
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#368 Jobbes

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Posted 14 November 2006 - 07:28 PM

Recently, I was fortunate to meet a couple of Indonesian-Chinese here in the US. And when a half-chinese/half-filipino friend of mine mentioned that they are all in political asylum, that was when it hit me. I remembered when I was still active in a socio-civic chinese group called, Tzu Chi, back in the Philippines, they showed us pictures of the events that transpired in the massacre of Chinese-Indonesians. I was devastated back then, surprised beyond belief how our fellow brothers were persecuted. And now in front me, stood the actual people who were able to flee from the tragedy that befell Indonesia.

I also remember asking one of them about being able to speak mandarin or hokkien, but the reply I got was that, back in Indonesia it was prohibited to teach Chinese in schools. So basically, most of them are not really versed in the Chinese dialect. I know that something like this also happened in the Philippines during the time of my grand parents; where-in Chinese is not to be taught in schools, but was later on accepted. The problem with the Philippines is that, although Chinese tradition is still prevalent, some Philippine-born-Chinese have seem to lost the importance of what our heritage really is. I, personally, want my children to be exposed to our culture, but the wave of western colonial thinking seems to be more appealing to the new generation of Chinese in the Philippines.

It was really fun and interesting to be able to meet fellow Chinese-Indonesians, well basically, overseas chinese. To learn from them and share common practices, as well as explore chinese-indonesian experiences and cultural differences.

#369 Kenshinng

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Posted 14 November 2006 - 08:49 PM

Well, i feel sorry for my Indonesian Chinese brothers and sisters. I've heard a lot about the 1998 saga in Indonesia. Apparently, it's really inhumane and horrible. Til today, the Indonesian Chinese still live in suspicion and fear that the 1998 saga might resurface.

My Indonesian Chinese friend told me how the Indonesian Chinese adults had to arm themselves to protect their neighbourhood from the native Indonesians and how the Indonesian police watch the attacks without doing anything, some even participated. Til today, they still get threats of another attack on Chinese neighbourhoods yet the Indon government ignores their pleadings and non of those participated in the 1998 attacks were arrested.



Yeapz it was really quite bad back then...a few months ago i was in Jakarta and i managed to see the ruins of the places which were ransacked and i heard about stories about people whose assets were all stolen esp those Chinese who owned businesses. During that time, the Chinese shops were marked and the rioters would go around in lorries and buses just to snatch whatever they could.

The rape and murder part i am not sure but there were a lot of pictures circulating around online which showed beheadings and pictures of murdered women who were stripped bare

#370 red_pr!nce

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Posted 13 January 2007 - 03:15 PM

Compared to the Japanese people, the Chinese are never UNITED and SUPPORT each others. That's maybe the reason why many non-Chinese foreigners were able to slaughter the Chinese.

When the Japanese saaid about 'unity as the Savior to Asia' in WW2, the Chinese were still fighting among themselves, between the communists and the nationalists on the mainland, between many small business groups in many overseas Chinese communities. Even now, there are proves that many Chinese from 'Indonesia' differ themselves from Singaporean, Malaysian, Thai, or even Taipei Chinese. There are many unique traits spoken into themes, sparking small conflicts between themselves (mostly prejudices and attitutes toward).

It may explains why many foreigners rarely respect us.

Edited by red_pr!nce, 13 January 2007 - 03:16 PM.


#371 somechineseperson

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Posted 13 January 2007 - 04:27 PM

Compared to the Japanese people, the Chinese are never UNITED and SUPPORT each others. That's maybe the reason why many non-Chinese foreigners were able to slaughter the Chinese.

When the Japanese saaid about 'unity as the Savior to Asia' in WW2, the Chinese were still fighting among themselves, between the communists and the nationalists on the mainland, between many small business groups in many overseas Chinese communities. Even now, there are proves that many Chinese from 'Indonesia' differ themselves from Singaporean, Malaysian, Thai, or even Taipei Chinese. There are many unique traits spoken into themes, sparking small conflicts between themselves (mostly prejudices and attitutes toward).

It may explains why many foreigners rarely respect us.


Actually in ancient times Japan was far less united than China was.

China during the Zhou already had the belief in the various Hua or Xia states united together to fight against the "barbarians", 尊王攘夷, "Uphold the Zhou King and suppress the barbarians", Japan back then was still a land inhabited by Stone Age tribes.

I think the lack of unity among the Hua peoples might be due to more contemporary factors rather than anything intrinsic in Chinese Civilisation.

#372 Wan Ren aka Danny

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Posted 27 January 2007 - 05:05 PM

Something I put together.

Massacre and Slaughter of the Overseas Chinese

A.D. 1603 - Manila, Philippines
24,000 massacred by Spaniards when Ming Mandarins
visited the islands sparking fears of Chinese dominance.

A.D. 1662 - Manila, Philippines
30,000 put to sea and expelled from the Philippines.
Those caught outside the Parian (Manila's Chinese
ghetto) were beheaded immediately.

A.D. 1639-1640 - Manila, Philippines
20,000 die in anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1686 - Manila, Philippines
Anti-Chinese violence

A.D. 1740 - Batavia, Indonesia (Batavian Fury)
10,000 Chinese slaughtered by Dutch when the Chinese
objected to forced removals to Sri Lanka as slave
labour.

A.D. 1763 - Manila, Philippines
Anti- Chinese violence

A.D. 1792 - Cholon, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)
10,000 Chinese massacred in the Tay Son movement's
retaking of Cholon from Nguyen Anh who in 1780 had
proclaimed himself the new Nguyen ruler. According to
Nguyen records, Nhac of Tay Son lost one of his closest
aides, killed by Nguyen troops who happened to be ethnic
Chinese. In revenge, Nhac ordered the killing of ethnic
Chinese in the city including the women and children. It
has been speculated that this act was also to destroy the
ethnic Chinese commercial monopoly.

A.D. 1823 - South Borneo
10,000-20,000 Chinese massacred when Chinese "kongsi"
resisted the withdrawal and reselling of mining
concession to the Dutch by local Sultans due to
monetary jealousy and rivalry.

ca. A.D. 1824-1851 Reign of Rama III - Thailand
A band of Chinese insurgents capture and loot the city
of Chachengsao, causing the majority of the Siamese
population to flee the city. The government successfully
dispatched troops to put down the affair. After a few
confrontations one of the rebel leaders changed sides
and led his troops to capture the other rebel leaders. The
rest of the rebels soon fled the city and were surrounded
by the government troops. The town folk returned and
initiated a massacre. Some Chinese tried to flee by
becoming monks, but were not spared and many hanged
themselves to avoid the slaughter. Deaths numbered in
the thousands.

A.D. 1857 - Sarawak, North Borneo
2,000-5,000 Chinese massacred by Raja Brooke when a
Hakka gold-mining "kongsi" failed to murder him. Liu
Shanbang led 600-armed miners from Bau Lama to attack
Kuching on the 18th of February 1857. He succeeded in
the attack but James Brooke escaped unhurt. Liu became
the de facto 'Rajah' of Sarawak for 5 days from the 19th
to the 23rd of February after which Liu and his men
retreated to Bau when Tuan Muda Charles Brooke with
his Dayak force from 2nd Division (Sri Aman) retaliated.
Liu Shanbang was killed at Jugan, Siniawan on or about
the 24th of February. His men and their families were
mostly killed or suffocated to death by the Rajah's men at
Mau San and Ghost Cave areas with some managing to
escape to Indonesia.

A.D. 1871 - Los Angeles, California, USA
19 Chinese die when white Los Angeles citizens go bezerk
after the accidental killing of a white man by a Chinese
laborer.

A.D. 1877 - Chico, California, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1885 - Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA
Anti-Chinese violence.

A.D. 1887 - Snake River, Oregon, USA
31 Chinese miners massacred in a 2-day orgy of violence.

A.D. 1890s - San Francisco & Seattle, USA
Thousands of Chinese were assaulted in "pigtail cutting
parties" by unemployed white vigilantes frightened by
the Yellow Peril frenzy.

A.D. 1942 - Singapore (Operation Sook Ching)
70,699 Chinese tortured and/or killed by Japanese
Kempeitai in Colonel Tsuji Masanobu's "Sook Ching" or
Purification/Ethnic Cleansing in reprisals for overseas
Chinese support of mainland China against the Japanese
invasion.

A.D. 1942 - Malaya (Operation Sook Ching)
40,000 Chinese killed by Japanese Kempetai in the
continuation of the Singapore Sook Ching.

A.D. 1946 - Malaya
The withdrawal of Japanese troops created a power
vacuum in Malaya. The predominately Chinese MPAJA
representing the victorious Allied forces with the approval
of the British, streamed out of the jungles to assume
control of towns and villages to impose law and order
prior to the British arrival. However, brutal reprisals and
witchhunts of Japanese collaborators and police personnel,
many of which were from the Japanese favoured Malay
population polarised the conflict along racial lines. Malays
retaliated with a fiery brand of Malay mysticism, Islam and
martial arts, forming the Red Band under Kiyai (Tok Guru)
Salleh and the Sabilillah. The Japanese, angered by the
MPAJA guerrilla activities during the occupation, joined the
Malays in the Batu Pahat area of Johor state to clear the
area of Chinese elements. The fighing spread thoughout
Malaya with the worst fighting occuring in Northern Johor
and central Perak states. Thousands died in the fighting
with large areas cleared of Chinese settlers who were
forced to flee to the larger cities.

A.D. 1965-1966 - Indonesia
500,000 killed in anti-communist violence, many were
local Chinese suspected of communist activities, others
were those who joined the PKI (Parti Kommunis Indonesia)
ignorant of the ideology but attracted by it's stance for
defending worker rights, while many others were innocent
victims caught in the frenzied bloodletting of racial
jealousy and animosity.

A.D. 1969 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1500-2000 Chinese dead from racial rioting sparked by
Chinese electoral victories in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur
which prevented the formation of a Malay dominated state
goverment in Selangor and the 2/3 majority in Parliment
required to push through constitutional amendments
without a referendum.

A.D. 1998 - Jakarta, Indonesia
Thousands of Chinese businesses and homes were burnt,
looted and smashed when rampaging youths, chafting
under the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, blamed the Chinese
for their sufferings and rioted in the streets of Jakarta.
Untold numbers of Chinese were killed, Chinese girls were
gang-raped and houses plundered. The Indonesian police,
unable or unwilling to stop the violence, prompted residents
of housing estates to band together to erect barricades,
arm themselves and to employ armed guards to patrol the
streets.

Liang Jieming
http://groups.yahoo....ragonSeedLegacy


SAd and fustrating but hua kiao have stayed steadfast and held on patiently, quitely and peacefully continue to co-exist with locals and their preserverance has paid off, now majority of hua kiao expereince a more stable life style than their local counter parts.

The weakness and disfunctional government of China has failed to protect hua kiao against such atrocitires. I hope that with a new stable and more influencial China, hua kiaos will have some one to lean on.

In Manila, we hua kiao have resorted to train to martial arts, and join martial clubs this private clubs provided a place of refuge and protects local Fili-Chinese against such attacks.

#373 BeeJay

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Posted 28 January 2007 - 03:03 AM

It's always interesting to read how history - in itself not very objective - is changed on the internet to baseless positive or negative extremes. Let's take a look at one of the listed items.

A.D. 1740 - Batavia, Indonesia (Batavian Fury) 10,000 Chinese slaughtered by Dutch when the Chinese objected to forced removals to Sri Lanka as slave labour.


First of all: in 1740 there were less than 5000 Chinese living in Batavia and at the time of the riots most had already left the city. In the NEI, Chinese were regarded as normal citizens, they played an active part in society, from retailers to bankers to manufacturers and in 1942 Dutch and Chinese etc fought the Japanese side-by-side.

The problems of 1740 began when Chinese owned and run sugar plantations fired the many thousands of cheap Chinese laborers they had illegally imported from China: they simply sent them packing into the jungle. These formed large groups that went on a pillaging spree, killing and plundering and making the countryside a very dangerous place to be. The government decided to implement a kind of visa-system so they could try to round up the illegals and send them to other colonies (Ceylon, South Africa: no forced labor mind you). This led many Chinese to leave the city, for fear of being shipped out, visa or no. Somehow a rumor then got started that the shipped illegals would be thrown overboard half-way. To this the rioters responded by organizing and attacking the city en masse, which the army and police managed to fight off with great trouble. It was then decided to do a house-to-house check in the Chinese suburb, for fear of 'fifth column' attacks etc. This got out of hand and in the end many citizines and refugees in the city started to plunder the Chinese suburb. Somehow in this confusion the city leader got the wrong impression of what was going on and sent out some stupid orders (like throwing Chinese out of hospitals etc). It then took several days to restore order. Because of mishandling this situation and his stupid orders, the city leader was jailed: he died as a prisoner several years later. In the aftermath the rioters teamed up with a local lord and kept on fighting the government, but this was defeated in the end, because the local lord changed sides (again).

The problem of any group that willingly and actively separates itself from its surrounding society but still taking part in it, is that that society will often hold that group responsible for the acts of its individuals. It has happened all over the world, all the time, with all kinds of isolated groups.

Btw, so nobody will get the wrong impression, maybe there should also be a thread on the forum about the Massacre and Slaughter of Chinese within China, by Chinese, no?

BJ
Whenever a theory appears to you as the only possible one, take this as a sign that you have neither understood the theory nor the problem which it was intended to solve.
Karl Popper (1902 - 1994)

#374 somechineseperson

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Posted 25 February 2007 - 11:49 AM

SAd and fustrating but hua kiao have stayed steadfast and held on patiently, quitely and peacefully continue to co-exist with locals and their preserverance has paid off, now majority of hua kiao expereince a more stable life style than their local counter parts.

The weakness and disfunctional government of China has failed to protect hua kiao against such atrocitires. I hope that with a new stable and more influencial China, hua kiaos will have some one to lean on.

In Manila, we hua kiao have resorted to train to martial arts, and join martial clubs this private clubs provided a place of refuge and protects local Fili-Chinese against such attacks.


One trend in the 21st century world is that the paradigm of the "nation-state" is breaking up...

The political state is becoming detached from ethnic identification.

Take the United Kingdom for example. In many parts of London now there are more non-English people than people of the English ethnicity. Many of these non-English people, even though they hold an English passport, still do not identify with the UK state. I had Muslim friends who had been in the UK for generations but still have a lot of anti-West feelings. Indeed, in some of the Muslim areas of London, you don't even need to speak English for your entire life...

One might argue whether this is a bad thing or not, but it seems that it is indeed a trend...

Overseas Huaren cannot expect a lot of help from the Chinese state, unless you hold a PRC or ROC passport/ID card, they must strengthen themselves and strive for more unity.

Culture (in its three basic aspects: spoken language, written script and religion) is very important in this case. So is a kind of ancestral connection to one's home region.

Edited by somechineseperson, 26 February 2007 - 02:12 PM.


#375 sg_han

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Posted 02 March 2007 - 09:15 AM

3 countries where chinese are most discriminated in South east asia

malaysia
indonesia and
brunei....

what do they have in common?









Answer: they are all malay/muslims
大韓民國의國歌-愛國歌




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