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History of Chinese in Malaysia


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#91 lifezard

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Posted 22 July 2006 - 01:01 PM

Read my reply here:

http://www.chinahist...p...t&p=4806433

:) Totally agree. I should start taking Bahasa Melayu lessons. How about next year? Shall we go sign up for some courses? I think the CCs have something.

I mean we should at least master the basics like how to ask a girl out...


hey, i ve been thinkin of that! which cc do you have in mind?

as for asking girls out, unfortunately i find most sg malay girls rather lianish ( i m no ah beng!) :P so that s probably out for me
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#92 lifezard

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Posted 22 July 2006 - 01:06 PM

lol Orang Asli Is a Malay Proto... :angry:

All Indonesia, Malaysia, Patani (Southern Thailand), Mindanao (Southern Philipines) = Malay Archipelago

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The Orang Asli

The Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of Peninsular Malaysia. The name is a Malay term which transliterates as 'original peoples' or 'first peoples.' It is a collective term introduced by anthropologists and administrators for the 18 sub-ethnic groups generally classified for official purposes under Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay. They numbered 105,000 in 1997 representing a mere 0.5 per cent of the national population.

The Orang Asli, nevertheless, are not a homogeneous group. Each has its own language and culture, and perceives itself as different from the others. Linguistically, some of the northern Orang Asli groups (especially the Senoi and Negrito groups) speak languages - now termed Aslian languages - that suggest a historical link with the indigenous peoples in Burma, Thailand and Indo-China.

The members of the Proto-Malay tribes, whose ancestors were believed to have migrated from the Indonesian islands to the south of the peninsula, speak dialects which belong to the same Austronesian family of languages as Malay, with the exceptions of the Semelai and Temoq dialects (which are Austroasiatic).

The Orang Asli have equally varied occupations and ways of life. The Orang Laut, Orang Seletar and Mah Meri, for example, live close to the coast and are mainly fishermen. Some Temuan, Jakun and Semai people have taken to permanent agriculture and now manage their own rubber, oil palm or cocoa farms.

About 40 per cent of the Orang Asli population - including Semai, Temiar, Che Wong, Jah Hut, Semelai and Semoq Beri - however, live close to, or within forested areas. Here they engage in swiddening (hill rice cultivation) and do some hunting and gathering. These communities also trade in petai, durian, rattan and resins to earn cash incomes.

A very small number, especially among the Negrito groups (such as Jahai and Lanoh) are still semi-nomadic, preferring to take advantage of the seasonal bounties of the forest. A fair number also live in urban areas and are engaged in both waged and salaried jobs.

There is no doubt, however, that the Orang Asli are the descendants of the earliest inhabitants in the peninsula. It has been suggested that they retained much of their identity to the present day because of their relative isolation from the other communities and the forces of change.

This is not to suggest that the Orang Asli lived in complete isolation, existing only on subsistence production. Economic dealings with the neighbouring Malay communities were not uncommon for the past few hundred years, especially for the Proto-Malay groups. Those Orang Asli living in remote forest areas also engaged in some trading with the Malays, with jungle produce being exchanged for salt, knives and metal axe-heads. There was also evidence of trade in blowpipes and blowpipe-bamboo among certain tribes. It has also been shown that the Orang Asli have played a significant role in the Malay Peninsula's economic history as collectors and primary traders as early as the 5th Century A.D. An early 19th century report also tells of Negritos providing forest products as tribute to the Malay chiefs of the river basins they resided in.

There seemed, therefore, to be a certain amount of interaction between the Orang Asli and the other ethnic groups, particularly the Malays who resided along the fringes of the forest. Some of the initial contacts, however, were unfortunately characterized by cruelty and mutual hostility.

http://www.magickriver.net/oa.htm


Hi Hang Li Po,

may i ask? if u know where we can find the Orang Lauts and Orang Seletar(who reputedly once inhabited the area in Singapore now known as Seletar)? do many integrate into the Malay mainstream?

many thanks
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#93 urofpersia

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Posted 22 July 2006 - 01:27 PM

hey, i ve been thinkin of that! which cc do you have in mind?

as for asking girls out, unfortunately i find most sg malay girls rather lianish ( i m no ah beng!) :P so that s probably out for me


There are sophisticated and nice ones I assure you. Failing that we always have indonesians gals. :haha:

Anyway it will still come in handy chatting with the Aunties in my block apart from addressing her as Macik, not to mention when I go up north/south. I will feel better being able to speak my national language too.

Not sure which CC but I think they periodically conduct language lessons for Mandarin, Malay and even Tamil. Maybe next time we meet up we can discuss more about this.

I have never heard of Orang Seletar! But if you go to the NLB main branch now there is an exhibition on nomads which include some pictures taken of Orang Laut children I think. Can't be too far back as the photo was in colour.
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#94 sg_han

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Posted 23 July 2006 - 01:40 AM

Hi Hang Li Po,

may i ask? if u know where we can find the Orang Lauts and Orang Seletar(who reputedly once inhabited the area in Singapore now known as Seletar)? do many integrate into the Malay mainstream?

many thanks


HangLiPoh, i just read this commnet of yours and i beg to differ. Southern Thailand and West Malaysia are argubly NOT part of the malay archipelago

lifezard, those that do take up the malaysian state gov's (especially PAS) offer of convertign to islam integrate to malay mainstream but not the others.

you can find some at the straits of johor somewhere off the shores of northeastern singaporea and if you find that some of them look a little chinese. do not be alarmed because a number of them married singaporean chinese.
大韓民國의國歌-愛國歌

#95 lifezard

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Posted 23 July 2006 - 07:57 AM

HangLiPoh, i just read this commnet of yours and i beg to differ. Southern Thailand and West Malaysia are argubly NOT part of the malay archipelago

lifezard, those that do take up the malaysian state gov's (especially PAS) offer of convertign to islam integrate to malay mainstream but not the others.

you can find some at the straits of johor somewhere off the shores of northeastern singaporea and if you find that some of them look a little chinese. do not be alarmed because a number of them married singaporean chinese.



hi sg_han,

can you state the exact districts or villages?

... and if not islam what are their beliefs? animist?


i ve been thinking of doing a bike trip to somewhere along the johor lama site, will i be able to cover them?

Edited by lifezard, 23 July 2006 - 07:59 AM.

plain amateur, here to make mistakes, make a fool of ownself, and hopefully learn something in the process

#96 urofpersia

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Posted 23 July 2006 - 10:16 AM

hi sg_han,

can you state the exact districts or villages?

... and if not islam what are their beliefs? animist?
i ve been thinking of doing a bike trip to somewhere along the johor lama site, will i be able to cover them?


Bike as in bicycle or bike as in motobike? I dont have my license yet if not I might consider joining you.
Ur of Persia

#97 lifezard

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Posted 23 July 2006 - 09:39 PM

Bike as in bicycle or bike as in motobike? I dont have my license yet if not I might consider joining you.


i dun have a motorbike licence either. what do u think? :P
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#98 urofpersia

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Posted 24 July 2006 - 12:23 AM

i dun have a motorbike licence either. what do u think? :P



Let's plan a trip and see if we can at least convince a Malaysian who can speak Malay to accompany us (someone comes to mind...) I will have a lot more free time come November/Dec maybe we can plan it around then.

What would be really interesting I think would be to check some Chinese communities as well and maybe visit some chinese temples there. We bring along our cameras and notebooks and we can do a special report for CHF.
Ur of Persia

#99 sg_han

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Posted 24 July 2006 - 02:56 AM

hi sg_han,

can you state the exact districts or villages?

... and if not islam what are their beliefs? animist?
i ve been thinking of doing a bike trip to somewhere along the johor lama site, will i be able to cover them?


err not sure about the district but i am sure it would take long riding on a boat along the johor straits...it is just off the shores of north eastenr snigapore


yes animist... but a minority have been found to have some form of hindu influence not sure bou tt....


urofpersia, you might like to visit the snake temple in penang or temples in malacca.=)
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#100 lifezard

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Posted 25 July 2006 - 12:17 AM

Let's plan a trip and see if we can at least convince a Malaysian who can speak Malay to accompany us (someone comes to mind...) I will have a lot more free time come November/Dec maybe we can plan it around then.

What would be really interesting I think would be to check some Chinese communities as well and maybe visit some chinese temples there. We bring along our cameras and notebooks and we can do a special report for CHF.


basically that s fine for me, taking out the fact that I will have reservist late Nov-early Dec :g: ....

sg_han seems to be rather familiar with the area, would be great if he could be our guide..

in meantime, we better brush whatever mediocre malay we know before attempting that trip..
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#101 sg_han

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Posted 25 July 2006 - 06:53 AM

basically that s fine for me, taking out the fact that I will have reservist late Nov-early Dec :g: ....

sg_han seems to be rather familiar with the area, would be great if he could be our guide..

in meantime, we better brush whatever mediocre malay we know before attempting that trip..


erm cause it was reported in the straits times once and i rmbed it lol
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#102 urofpersia

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Posted 25 July 2006 - 12:44 PM

basically that s fine for me, taking out the fact that I will have reservist late Nov-early Dec :g: ....

sg_han seems to be rather familiar with the area, would be great if he could be our guide..

in meantime, we better brush whatever mediocre malay we know before attempting that trip..

The more the merrier I say, to paraphrase Dorothy, this sure ain't Singapore anymore. Best have a native along, I will ask Angry Boar. Will be tough, end of the year he is busy too we will need to plan around his schedule. Maybe early Jan will be better.
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#103 塞北雄鷹

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Posted 23 September 2006 - 08:34 AM

A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the 15th and the mid-20th centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is rarely used in Malaysia.

Early Chinese settlers (from the 15th century in Malacca; 18th century in Penang) form to a sub-group called Peranakan or Straits Chinese, who adopted many Malay customs and to varying extents (limited in Penang, almost complete in Malacca) the Malay language, but retained Chinese religious practices. In contrast, the newer arrivals (19th century and later) who retained Chinese customs were known as sinkheh (新客 - literally "new guests").

The Chinese in Malaysia maintain a distinct communal identity and rarely intermarry with native Malays for religious and cultural reasons. This is because most Malays are Muslim. Such a marriage in Malaysia requires the non-Muslim party to convert in order for the marriage to be legal. Most Malaysian Chinese consider their being "Chinese" at once an ethnic, cultural and political identity.

The Malaysian Chinese have traditionally dominated the Malaysian economy, but with the advent of affirmative action policies by the Malaysian government to protect the interests of its native people, their share has eroded somewhat. On most counts however, they still make up the majority of the middle and upper income classes of Malaysia. As of 2004, the Chinese population in Malaysia is nearly 7 million people.

History

Most Chinese immigrants to Malaya came from southern China, mostly of Hokkien and Cantonese provinces. In the 19th century , many came as indentured labour, known as coolies. Others came freely to work, and were supported by Clan Associations.

By 1911, the Chinese population in Malaya had reached 269,854, and around a million in 1949.

Dialect groups (Census 2000)

According to The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature p52, p53, the number of Chinese speakers has increased from 2,667,452 in 1957 to 5,365,846 in year 2000, comprising 26% of total population in Malaysia. Source coming from the Population & housing Census 2000, and the numbers of dialect groups are:

*
o Hokkien 2,020,868
o Hakka 1,092,754
o Cantonese 1,067,994
o Teochew 497,280
o Hokchiu 251,554
o Hainanese 141,045
o Kwongsai 51,674
o others 243,046

Dialect groups

The Chinese in Malaysia belong to several Chinese dialect groups. The six major dialect groups include the Hakka, Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, Hainanese and Hokchiu. People belonging to different dialect groups are concentrated in different parts of Malaysia.

The Hakka form the most populous dialect group in East Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak, parts of Johor, notably Kulai, Selangor-Kuala Lumpur and Pahang. Hakkas are also found in large numbers in Johor Bahru and Perak, of which they possibly constitute the largest dialect group.

Cantonese constitutes the most populous Chinese dialect group in the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Pahang and Perak where the Cantonese forms a large percentage of the population. The Cantonese also forms the largest dialect group in eastern Johor and Sandakan, Sabah. Sandakan used to be called "Little Hong Kong" since it was the second homeland for many settlers from Guangdong, where the sceneries resembles Hong Kong in the 70s and the 80s. Local Cantonese media is frequently broadcasted by Malaysian television channels, notably TV2, TV3 and 8TV.

On the other hand, the Hokkien form the largest dialect group in Penang, Kedah, Terengganu, Kelantan, Klang and western Johor. The Hokkien dialect is also commonly spoken in Sarawak's capital city, Kuching.

The Teochews are concentrated in parts of Penang, many islands of Sabah and Southern Johor, principally Johor Bahru and Pontian.

There are, in general, three sub-linguistic groups of Malaysian Chinese with three metropolitan centers. The Penang group is predominantly Hokkien-speaking and the Kuala Lumpur group is predominantly Cantonese and Hakka-speaking. To the south of Peninsular Malaysia, in Johor, Mandarin is predominantly spoken among the Chinese communities there, which is a result of the Mandarin media influence from Singapore, and the use of Mandarin in formal education. This has resulted in many people, especially the younger generation, to discard and neglect the usage of Chinese dialects, especially Teochew and Cantonese. Whereas in East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo), Hakka and Mandarin is widely spoken, except in Sibu, Foochow and in Sandakan, Cantonese.

Modern movements to unify and organize Malaysian, Singaporean and Indonesian Chinese communities introduced standard Mandarin as the language of diaspora ethnic nationalism.

Education and Language

Traditionally, the Chinese have placed great importance and value on education because of their view of education as being a means to improve their standard of living. This is also due in part to the traditional Confucian esteem of education and the educated. Today, the Chinese are one of the most academically competitive groups in the country and in the region (including Australia, a popular destination for many Malaysian Chinese students pursuing their tertiary education).

Chinese educated

A large segment of the Malaysian Chinese population is predominantly Chinese-speaking. They are commonly known as the "Chinese-educated". Malaysia is also the only country outside China (including Hong Kong and Macau) and Taiwan, to have a completely Chinese-medium education system. There are roughly 1,300 Chinese public primary schools (national-type schools) in Malaysia that are all partially government funded (the salary of the teachers is paid by the government while the upkeep of school buildings is paid by the communities through donations). The Chinese national-type school received less than 3% of total funding for all primary schools. Mandarin is the language of instruction in all subjects except in the language classes of Bahasa Melayu and English. In the 1960s, all but 16 of the Chinese secondary schools had received government funding and had been converted into National Secondary Schools (Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan), but the term "National-type Secondary Schools" is used internally until today to show that they were once Chinese Schools. They first used English but later on used Bahasa Malaysia as the language of instruction. Today there are 60 Chinese secondary schools that are supported financially mostly by the public. These are called "Independent Chinese Schools". Mandarin is the main language of instruction in these private schools except Bahasa Malaysia and English, but some schools use either Malay or English in selected subjects. In 2004, according to statistical data, 90% of all Malaysian Chinese attend Chinese primary schools (The figure was around 70% in 1970). Among the 600,000 Chinese primary school students, roughly 10% are of non-Chinese descent. On the other hand, 90% of Chinese primary school graduates continue their secondary studies in public secondary schools (both national and national-type), while the remaining 10% go to Chinese private secondary schools. There are also three privately-owned post-secondary institutes in Malaysia where the language of instruction is Mandarin.

English educated

A sizeable group of Malaysian Chinese speak English as a first language (something carried over from the British colonial days). They speak English at home, and make it a point to immerse and educate their children in the English language. Like their counterparts in Singapore, they are known as the "English-educated" although the term is something of an anachronism. Most of these "English-educated" Chinese are unable to read and write in Chinese. These people are jocularly called "banana" (Chinese: 香蕉人, white on the inside, yellow on the outside) though some consider this term as derogatory.

Unlike in Singapore, English has not been used as a language of instruction in Malaysia (except in private institutions and urban schools) since it was phased out the 1970s and 1980s in favor of Malay. Although there are English medium schools in Malaysia that provide an education based on a British or US-based curriculum, these cater to expatriate children.

However, as of 2002, the Malaysian government has reintroduced English as the language of instruction for Science and Mathematics in national secondary schools and universities.

While "proper" English is generally spoken and understood among Malaysian Chinese, a common form used is a patois called Manglish (Malaysian English). Manglish is very similar to Singlish (Singaporean English). Manglish speakers typically understand 80-90% of Singlish and vice versa. See British and Malaysian English differences. Unless specifically Manglish or Singlish terms are used in a conversation, it can be difficult even for native speakers to differentiate the two as the intonation and most terms (especially the infamous lah) are common. Singaporean television sitcoms such as Phua Chu Kang and Under One Roof that make use of Singlish are popular in Malaysia. The Singapore government has tried to reduce the use of Singlish in these serials, with visible success.

Regional community

The Malaysian Chinese community is intricately linked to the Singaporean Chinese community because of a shared history and culture. Singapore was a part of the Federation of Malaysia before it became independent in 1965. Many Singaporean Chinese have relatives in Malaysia and vice-versa. There are also a significant number of Malaysian Chinese residing and working in Singapore. Some families in nearby Johor send their children (around 5000 of them) to school in Singapore, commuting back and forth between the two countries every day.

On that same note, the Malaysian Chinese are culturally much more distant from the Indonesian Chinese, Filipino Chinese and Thai Chinese. This is attributable to the fact that these countries did not have a shared history with Malaysia like Singapore did.

The entire Southeast Asian Chinese diaspora is characterized by their considerable economic fortunes and their susceptibility to discrimination or political exploitation by politicians. This diaspora is commonly referred to as the Nanyang Chinese, 'Nanyang' (南洋) being the Mandarin term for Southeast Asia.

Religion

A majority of the Chinese in Malaysia claim to be Buddhist or Taoist, though the lines between them are often blurred and, typically, a syncretic Chinese religion incorporating elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and traditional ancestor-worship is practised, with the fact that each individual follows it in varying degrees. About 19% are Christian (Mainstream Protestants, Catholics and other Protestant denominations) and an extremely small number profess Islam as their faith. There is quite a significant number of Christians among the Chinese population in East Malaysia.

Famous Malaysian Chinese

* Michael Wong Guang Liang, singer
* Ah Niu, singer
* Chin Peng - Communist militant leader during 60's.
* Fung Poh Poh - actress, Hong Kong movie star.
* Jenny Chung Shuk Hui - actress, Hong Kong movie star.
* Michelle Yeoh - International actress, starred in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Memoirs of a Geisha, Tomorrow Never Dies.
* Tsai Ming-liang - Taiwan based award winning director.
* Robert Kuok - One of the richest men in the Asian Pacific Rim.
* Zang Toi - 5th Avenue New York fashion designer.
* Alex Yoong - F1 racer.
* Mr Jimmy Choo - London-based shoe designer.
* Lim Goh Tong - Malaysian businessman who owns the Genting Group.
* Vincent Tan - Malaysian businessman, owner of the Berjaya Group.
* Lee Sin Je - An award winning actress.
* Fish Leong - A famous singer based in Taiwan.
* Francis Yeoh - Billionaire and owner of YTL Group.
* Daniel Lee Chee Hun - singer who won the second season of Malaysian Idol
* Lillian Too - Feng Shui master.
* Tash Aw - author of The Harmony Silk Factory, which made the Man Booker Prize 2005 longlist and won the 2005 Whitbread First Novel award.
* Hang Li Poh - The wife of Malacca Sultan of 15th century.
* Yap Ah Loy - Kapitan Cina of Kuala Lumpur.

#104 galvatron prime

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Posted 23 September 2006 - 09:37 AM

I think the famous malaysia chinese shall included

lim kit siang ,fong po kuan ,teresa kwok ,lim guan eng ,tan sing giaw ,lee lam thye[formerly] ,fong kui lun,chong eng,lim hock seng ,chong chiang jen from democratics action party or dap .

tan cheng lock ,lim chong eu ,tan siew sin ,lee san choon ,ling leong sik ,lim ah lek ,ong ka ting ,chew mei fun ,ng yen yen ,tan yew kiew from malaysia chinese association or mca .

tian chua from part keadilian .

lim keng yiak ,koh tsu koon from gerakan.

yap kwan seng the last kapitan in kuala lumpur.

the chinese youth in malaysia too more know of selling pirates vcd and dvd in jalan petaling in kuala lumpur malaysia .

#105 LYY

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Posted 24 September 2006 - 10:45 PM

About 19% are Christian (Mainstream Protestants, Catholics and other Protestant denominations) and an extremely small number profess Islam as their faith. ...


Generally, the Chinese has little problems to become Christian.
It is not so in the case of professing Islam ...




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