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biography of Yue Fei in english


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#16 ghostexorcist

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Posted 10 December 2007 - 06:59 AM

I am always amazed how Yue Fei has become a modern nationalist hero and his legends are taken by many has historic fact. I remember having a long debate with some Peking University history students once on the credibility of much of his legend. they take it all as fact, despite several misinterpretations and obvious mistakes, but it doesn't matter; people believe what they want to believe. They ignore the fact that it was a pre-nationalist society and forget about concepts such as fielty.


I'm surprised that history students would argue about his legend. What part did they feel was real?

#17 Iovah

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Posted 10 December 2007 - 08:47 AM

I'm surprised that history students would argue about his legend. What part did they feel was real?


They basically gave a whole speech as to how he's a national hero, people should be more like him, that Yue Fei only thought of the good will of the people of his country, and vehemently resist the barbarians to the north in order to save Chinese civilization from destruction. They basically went on in this fashion saying that his whole life was dedicated to this. I highly doubt he was such a 2D character in real life, but they seem to accept that as truth. Just like the legend of Lei Feng who everyone now knows in th West, with plenty of proof, was a made-up person. I beleive Yue Fei was a real person, but I doubt he was the person described to us, nor was he a monumental warrior, after all, most generals sit in the back of the battle and reap the glory later, which is probably what he did. The funny thing is the Beida students ardently believed that Yue Fei certainly had a tatoo on his chest that said "Seek Revenge for the Country." A part of the Yue Fei legend. I think it is highly circumspect. Anyway, in the end, the students concluded that since I am a white foreigner that I could not possibly comprehend the depth of Chinese history and I could be forgiven for such blasphemy to their nationalistic pride.

My point is this: The records we have of him were written long after his death or by other people whos records were later changed to conform to later views, just as most historical records are. Most writtings on him were generations after his death, so how could people truly know him? Also, people have different understandings of the same event both contemporary and in the past. Maybe one person in the Song thought he was a hero and another a loser, but the record saying he's a hero survived till this day. Maybe they talked about how Yue Fei protected the mother-land, but we lost all records discussing how he was a cruel bitter old man who enjoyed torturing cute animals. The fact is history is a blind spot. We should study it always bearing in mind the source of the records and be cognizant of this blind spot.
Christopher C. Heselton -- Student of Chinese History

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#18 ghostexorcist

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Posted 10 December 2007 - 09:01 PM

They basically gave a whole speech as to how he's a national hero, people should be more like him, that Yue Fei only thought of the good will of the people of his country, and vehemently resist the barbarians to the north in order to save Chinese civilization from destruction. They basically went on in this fashion saying that his whole life was dedicated to this. I highly doubt he was such a 2D character in real life, but they seem to accept that as truth. Just like the legend of Lei Feng who everyone now knows in th West, with plenty of proof, was a made-up person. I beleive Yue Fei was a real person, but I doubt he was the person described to us, nor was he a monumental warrior, after all, most generals sit in the back of the battle and reap the glory later, which is probably what he did. The funny thing is the Beida students ardently believed that Yue Fei certainly had a tatoo on his chest that said "Seek Revenge for the Country." A part of the Yue Fei legend. I think it is highly circumspect. Anyway, in the end, the students concluded that since I am a white foreigner that I could not possibly comprehend the depth of Chinese history and I could be forgiven for such blasphemy to their nationalistic pride.

My point is this: The records we have of him were written long after his death or by other people whos records were later changed to conform to later views, just as most historical records are. Most writtings on him were generations after his death, so how could people truly know him? Also, people have different understandings of the same event both contemporary and in the past. Maybe one person in the Song thought he was a hero and another a loser, but the record saying he's a hero survived till this day. Maybe they talked about how Yue Fei protected the mother-land, but we lost all records discussing how he was a cruel bitter old man who enjoyed torturing cute animals. The fact is history is a blind spot. We should study it always bearing in mind the source of the records and be cognizant of this blind spot.

The tattoo ("Boundless loyalty to the country") was on his back, but I understand how you feel on that point. I always thought the tattoo belonged in a fairytale book and not official records. Many western scholars rely on Yue Fei's bio that was written by his grandson Yue Ke about 60 years after the General's death. They agree that it is a trustworthy source for the most part, but admit that some of Yue's accomplishments were beefed up by a "filial grandson".

The sources I listed at the beginning of this thread paint a picture of Yue Fei as an iron-fisted disciplinarian that would execute any of his soldiers for the tiniest infraction. The method he used seemed to be beheading. They also say he was horribly one-minded and never listened to any of the advice of his junior officers even if his course of action was wrong. He was demoted several times for overstepping his rank and sending personal petitions to the emperor demanding that he take a certain course of action or choose an heir. This does not sound like the flawless general that the legend portrays.

One of the biggest problems I have concerns his death. Many people claim he was called back to the capital from the heat of battle and was immediately imprisoned and murdered. The records state he and two other generals were called back after the engagement had ended, he was stripped of his military power and made a civilian official, he retired from his post, and was later arrested because the court was afraid he might try to contact his former army and try to rebel against the Song. Most scholars believe this is was the chief reason he was executed (nearly 8 months after being called back to the capital). It was a preemptive measure. But, taking into account your concerns on the records validity, it is hard to decipher what really happened.

Ultimately, I think it was very wrong of the students to berate you just because you are a foreigner.

Edited by ghostexorcist, 11 December 2007 - 06:00 AM.


#19 Iovah

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Posted 11 December 2007 - 11:11 AM

The tattoo ("Boundless loyalty to the country") was on his back, but I understand how you feel on that point. I always thought the tattoo belonged in a fairytale book and not official records. Many western scholars rely on Yue Fei's bio that was written by his grandson Yue Ke about 60 years after the General's death. They agree that it is a trustworthy source for the most part, but admit that some of Yue's accomplishments were beefed up by a "filial grandson".

The sources I listed at the beginning of this thread paint a picture of Yue Fei as an iron-fisted disciplinarian that would execute any of his soldiers for the tiniest infraction. The method he used seemed to be beheading. They also say he was horribly one-minded and never listened to any of the advice of his junior officers even if his course of action was wrong. He was demoted several times for overstepping his rank and sending personal petitions to the emperor demanding that he take a certain course of action or choose an heir. This does not sound like the flawless general that the legend portrays.

One of the biggest problems I have concerns his death. Many people claim he was called back to the capital from the heat of battle and was immediately imprisoned and murdered. The records state he and two other generals were called back after the engagement had ended, he was stripped of his military power and made a civilian official, he retired from his post, and was later arrested because the court was afraid he might try to contact his former army and try to rebel against the Song. Most scholars believe this is was the chief reason he was executed (nearly 8 months after being called back to the capital). It was a preemptive measure. But, taking into account your concerns on the records validity, it is hard to decipher what really happened.

Ultimately, I think it was very wrong of the students to berate you just because you are a foreigner.


I admit I don't know much about Yue Fei's legend or history. Thanks for educating me further on the topic. :) I'm generally involved in Qing and Republican social history; not military history, but I was just analyzing the situation from the little I knew that contradicted what people were asserting. The way you explained it makes much more sense to my view of everything. (I also found his death to not make sense. It more so seemed to portray the "righteous general" as being betrayed by greedy power hungry ministers kind of story). Even then, when his grandson wrote the bio, I doubt he knew him well or even if he did know him well after 60 years (so possibly Yue Ke was in his 70's or 80's) he couldn't remember well or was starting to go senile. It's all speculation, but we do know that memories fade with time, details are forgotten or discarded and that all writtings have an intent. In this case, the intent may have been the grandson glorifying his ancestory. Who knows, but a historian should always question the source.
Christopher C. Heselton -- Student of Chinese History

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#20 ghostexorcist

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Posted 11 December 2007 - 05:03 PM

Yue Ke (1183-post 1240) was the son of Yue Fei’s third son, Yue Lin (b. 1130). The source mentions that Ke use to sit on Lin’s lap and listen to stories about Yue Fei. Lin was only born eleven years before his father's execution, so I doubt he could know very much. I don’t have my main source in front of me right now, but I believe it mentions that Yue Lin originally began the Yue Fei memoir with the help of an official. Yue Lin later asked Ke to finish the memoir on his death bed. He didn’t finish it until 1203. Yue Ke was a noted poet and historian, so his portrayal of his grandfather does have some credence.

#21 Diyouheng

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Posted 31 July 2008 - 11:00 AM

I really wish I knew German now! I would love to read about the political analysis of the tale.


If you're still interested, perhaps I can help? I wrote that thesis, although that was really along, long time ago...

#22 ghostexorcist

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Posted 31 July 2008 - 06:10 PM

If you're still interested, perhaps I can help? I wrote that thesis, although that was really along, long time ago...

I am very interested. However, I am skeptical when an anonymous person claims to be the author of a certain work. Can you offer proof?

#23 ChefDave

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Posted 31 July 2008 - 07:02 PM

I am always amazed how Yue Fei has become a modern nationalist hero and his legends are taken by many has historic fact.


Thank you for saying this. Most of what we know about this general is sheer conjecture. It is my understanding that after his execution, all references about him were expunged from the military records. It was not enough that his detractors had him executed. They wanted to eliminate all records of his accomplishments.

If half of the stories told about Yue Fei are true, then he was certainly an extraordinary general. Discerning truth from fiction seems nearly impossible after so many years. How are we supposed to separate fact from hearsay, tall tales, and outright myths?

#24 Diyouheng

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Posted 06 August 2008 - 05:28 AM

I am very interested. However, I am skeptical when an anonymous person claims to be the author of a certain work. Can you offer proof?


I can't offer "proof" through this medium, I can only suggest you compare my Chinese name (given to me by my late Putonghua-teacher almost 40 years back) with the German original.

But as you claim you're interested: There is a number of points I try to make in that thesis.

One is, that very little historical fact is actually known about Yue Fei, primarily owed to
1) that the region where he grew up was occupied by the time he became on object of dynastic records, so no documents regarding his youth or family were available even then, and
2) that all records about executed prisoners were systematically destroyed. So when his grand son Yue Ke compiled his biography many decades after Yue Fei's death, there were no sources available to proove or disproove anything of what he wrote. However, that Yue Ke wrote hagiography is evident, and anything else would have been seen as a lack of filial piety. The rest is owed to the specific political circumstances under which he wrote. No records having survived Yue Fei's execution, Yue Ke's pious, myth-making hagiography made its way into the Song anals.

Another is, that Southern Song never gained the military strength to reconquer the north, and thus, that it is totally unrealistic to assume that it would have had that strength towards the end of the fourth decade. Actually, Qin Gui's condemnation is a phenomenon of the compilation of the Song anals during the Yuan Dynasty. It's funny how the honours posthumously bestowed on him are still quoted in the Song anals in spite of his biography being inserted under "villainous officials". This serves as evidence that the predominant political sentiment during the Southern Song period was anything but pro-restauration and anti-appeasement. After all, Southern Song survived for another ca. 140 years thanks to Qin Gui's appeasement policy, and during that period Song China was the most prosperous, most highly developed place on earth, rivaled by Baghdad only. The inevitable odd flares of a restaurative mood were very short-lived, and all military attempts utterly futile.

What little contemporary sources other than Yue Ke tell about the historical Yue Fei rather suggests that he is kind of a warlord more interested in increasing his own power-base and army than subject both to the dynasty struggling to reestablish itself.
If that interpretation has any viability, one must at least consider the view that Yue Fei may have been rightly or at least wisely been "done away with" because he didn't obey imperial orders and thus, with the huge army he commanded, posed a severe threat to the still very weak and truncated dynasty.
This is, in a nutshell, why I say in the English abstract, that in Yue Fei's case history has never been properly written.

Only after Song China had fallen under the Mongol hooves people started to reconsider peace with Jin - and only then was a concept, a sentiment developed among the population that we nowadays call nationalism, not least due to the fact that the Mongols didn't trust Chinese to administer the country, leaving the literate elite jobless and thus pushing them towards a new occupation: Writing plays for the illiterate masses.

This is when Yue Fei's "second" carreer started as a national hero, which reached its peak in early Manzhu times, but lasts through today.
Yue Fei stands at the cradle of Chinese nationalist sentiment, being conceived as one of the first persons valuing loyalty to the nation higher than loyalty to the throne, although he finally obeyed in "stupid loyalty".

Because his death and Qin Gui's triumph were not really satisfactory to an audience yearning for hope of deliverance from foreign occupation, many late Ming, early Qing plays close on a hopeful note - either by showing Qin Gui in hell, or by ending the story with Yue Fei's victory against the Jin, or continuing the story fictitiously with the next generation ("Xiao Yingxiong"), who complete the defeat of the Jin under Wuzhu, as does the Shuo Yue Quanzhuan.

Happy to discuss, and willing to give more details.

Di Youheng

Edited by Diyouheng, 06 August 2008 - 06:39 AM.


#25 Xuande

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Posted 28 August 2008 - 04:59 AM

Ten years ago, I remember having read an old ghost story where Yue Fei was depicted rather negatively. Towards the end of this story, it turned out that the heroin was in fact the ghost of a serving maid from Yue's mansion who had been beaten to death by her infuriated master for some minor mistake.

< This story came from a collection of short novels from the Ming dynasty (perhaps by Feng Menglong ? I can't remember the title). >

I found it surprising to see a national hero such as Yue Fei alluded as an impulsive and brutal man. But after reading your posts, it seems he may indeed have possessed such characteristics (and it was known at the time of composition of this ghost tale).



PS : By the way, from a litterary perspective, I personnally didn't enjoy the Qing Dynasty (fiction) book "General Yue Fei". Found it boring. Sounds to me like an awkward attempt to make a 12th century "Romance of the Three Kingdoms".

#26 peepee

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Posted 30 August 2008 - 02:29 AM

Yue-Fei's descendant,a Jurchen chief who became 義兄弟 of Korea's Chosun Dynasty founder Yi Seong-gye ( 李成桂 )

http://en.wikipedia....Taejo_of_Joseon


* 幼年結拜兄弟:李之蘭(東北面女真酋長童豆蘭)

http://zh.wikipedia....p;variant=zh-hk



There have been rumor in Chinese history academia circle for years that he was really of Han-Chinese ( 宋朝 漢民族 ) ancestry NOT a genuine ethnically Jurchen heritage 女真系.


李之蘭是南宋抗(女真)金人漢族名將"岳飛"的後裔

韓國徐炳國教授 《青海李氏世譜》,李之蘭的祖先是岳飛

{ 女真大酋長李之蘭在朝鮮王朝建國過程中的崛起 }
作者:王永一

一、前言

朝鮮王朝開國始祖李成桂在他建國前,他所管轄的東北面(今北韓咸鏡道一帶)軍事基盤中,最重要的代表人物便是女真族大酋長李之蘭(李豆蘭)。李之蘭是活躍於麗末鮮初的一位大臣,他在高麗末期來投於李成桂的軍事陣營,之後就居住在北青。李之蘭曾經為高麗朝及朝鮮朝立下了許多的戰功,而且在女真族諸部族之間具有高度名望的人物,朝鮮太祖李成桂和明朝都利用李之蘭如此名望來懷柔與招諭全體女真族。所以李之蘭在朝鮮和明朝兩國同時對女真政策上,均成功地實行的重要人物,並且李之蘭也參與了李成桂的威化島回軍,其後李成桂將朝鮮王朝開創之後,李之蘭被封為開國功臣,因此,關於李之蘭在朝鮮王朝建國過程中的崛起,考察如下:

二、李之蘭的先世

李之蘭(高麗忠肅王八年︱朝鮮太宗二年,一三二一至一四0二)是高麗和朝鮮兩個王朝的大臣,高麗時期他是叫做李豆蘭。李之蘭原來是女真族的大酋長,高麗恭愍王二0年(一三七一)二月,向高麗來投,來投以前他的初名是叫做豆蘭帖木兒(佟豆蘭)。李之蘭的父親是女真金牌千戶阿羅不花,李之蘭曾經世襲其父的千戶職。一)李之蘭的「李」姓是李之蘭來投高麗,進入李成桂麾下之後,李成桂所賜姓給李之蘭的。二)李之蘭曾經首先派遣他的管下百戶甫介率領女真人來投於高麗。然後,李之蘭自己也來投於高麗之後,便居住在東北面的北青,隸屬於李成桂的麾下之中,所以可知李之蘭和其祖先一定是女真人。但是又有關於李之蘭身世的另一種說法,即李之蘭的祖先並非女真人,而是宋朝人的說法。三)所謂宋朝人的說法,即李之蘭的祖先就是宋朝將軍岳飛,岳飛在高麗高宗一0年(一二二三)南宋被金國侵略後,便向高麗請求援兵,這時岳飛出征遼東時,與一位高麗女子生下小孩,岳飛回國南宋,而這高麗女子則無法隨之跟去,便定居遼東,依女真族風俗而姓佟,這個小孩就是李之蘭的先祖。上述的說法至今仍然難以確定,關於李之蘭的家系圖如下:四)



雷︱︱珂

岳飛︱︱︱霖



霆︱︱雨︱︱浮海︱︱阿甫︱︱雅遠(阿羅不花)︱︱李之蘭

金官職   元官職 元官職 元官職

帖木兒 千戶帖木兒 千戶  征西將軍

韓國徐炳國教授依據《青海李氏世譜》一書,斷定李之蘭的先祖為岳飛,岳飛有五個兒子:即雲、雷、霖、震、霆,李之蘭的先祖霆在岳飛死後潛往金朝接受官職。恭愍王一七年(明洪武元年,一三六八)成為三山孟崖帖木兒。李之蘭的家門從此開始依照女真風俗,在女真族社會生活。如此看來事實上,李之蘭是岳飛的第六代孫,即宋人的後裔,所以李之蘭的祖先應該不是女真人。此後李之蘭便成為韓國青海李氏的始祖,而且也受到許多後人的尊崇。

三、李之蘭的來投與東征西伐

李之蘭被尊崇為青海李氏的始祖的原因是他和李成桂結拜為兄弟的關係,兩人始終有如親兄弟一般。李之蘭的故鄉是在北青,而李成桂的故鄉是在永興;所以兩人的故鄉是十分接近的。如此李之蘭和李成桂是經常見面的,李之蘭初次和李成桂見面的地方是在介江上游,當時李之蘭是二十一歲,而李成桂是一七歲,兩人的武術都很高強出色。因為射獵的緣故,兩人每天見面同時較量射箭的技術。李之蘭雖然比李成桂大四歲,但是由於李成桂的射箭技術非常卓越,李之蘭一直很讚許李成桂,五)所以將李成桂視為自己的哥哥一樣,此後李之蘭隨著哥哥李成桂的姓氏而改姓「李」。並且李之蘭將自己當時所使用的女真姓名「佟豆蘭」改稱為「李之蘭」。從此李之蘭將李成桂比親兄還要極盡地尊敬,因而李之蘭成了有如李成桂的右肩一般的重要,相互之間是十分友愛的。因此李之蘭和李成桂深厚的兄弟關係可見一斑,當然李之蘭事實上也是受到李成桂的尊敬。六)於是恭愍王二0年(一三七一),李之蘭向高麗政府來投而成為李成桂的陣營的一員了。當時李之蘭已經四十一歲,來投前的身分是為女真族千戶。

李之蘭投入了李成桂的陣營後,便開始作戰,所謂征胡伐倭就是李之蘭在當時,高麗的國家情勢是北邊有女真和蒙古騷擾,南邊則有倭寇的侵略,因而受到很大的衝擊。(示禺)王六年(一三八0)八月,倭賊入侵鎮浦以及下三道地方(楊廣、全羅、慶尚),並在沿海州郡進行殺戮擄掠,當地人民受害程度到達了極點,對此,(示禺)王命李成桂為楊廣、全羅、慶尚三道的都巡察使來征伐倭賊,又命邊安烈為都體察使,為李成桂的副將。另外,命王福命,禹仁烈、都吉敷、朴林宗、洪仁桂、林成味、李元桂等人為元帥,全部由李成桂統一指揮。李成桂軍隊一到達長湍,便展開討伐倭賊的行動,倭寇進入尚州,任意恣行,駐屯沙斤乃驛的三道元帥裴克廉等九元帥敗戰,朴修敬和裴彥兩元帥戰死,於是倭寇勢力更加猖獗,終於攻入咸陽城,再向南原,火燒雲峰縣,聚集引月驛,漸次從光州金城往北前進,首都及地方受到很大的震撼。李成桂和邊安烈等人一起到達南原,與裴克廉等人會合。之後,李成桂攻向倭寇,當時其他的高麗軍隊戰敗而退,李成桂率領將帥軍士衝破賊陣。此時倭寇將帥從後面襲擊李成桂,在這危急情況之下,副將李之蘭將這個倭將射殺而化解了這種嚴重的危機,並且李成桂對於倭寇頭目阿只拔都的勇猛感到佩服,而命令李之蘭活捉他,李之蘭認為如此必定使得高麗國民受到傷害,因此李之蘭將阿只拔都射殺了。如此一來倭寇的氣勢遭到嚴重的打擊。七)李之蘭為了護主︱︱李成桂,以及為了國家的安危而如此細心周到,實在難能可貴。

(示禺)王九年(一三八三)八月,在遼瀋的女真人草賊侵略端州,草賊頭目是東寧府的殘黨胡拔都。八)胡拔都在恭愍王二一年(一三七二)期間三次侵入掠奪東北面,所以這次又來侵寇端州,女真副萬戶金同不花則與外敵內應合流,並與上萬戶陸麗和青州上萬戶黃希碩等人交戰多次,高麗軍全都敗戰。胡拔都侵寇目的只是為了財物掠奪,李成桂直覺這事態的嚴重,命令李之蘭出征,此時李之蘭正逢母喪,在青州(北青)服喪中,於是李成桂派人傳達給李之蘭,說明了國事危急,應該將喪服脫去,跟隨李成桂出征,李之蘭對此內容的要求做出了決定,因此毅然地脫去喪服,帶著武器,隨著李成桂討伐敵人,李之蘭在吉州平和胡拔都遭遇,李之蘭以先鋒和他作戰,但是卻大敗而回。這時李成桂的援軍不久就到達,胡拔都和李成桂對戰之後,結果胡拔都大敗而逃亡。以後,李成桂為了東西北面的邊境安全提出了安邊策。九)

(示禺)王一一年(一三八五)九月,倭寇大軍侵略咸州、洪原、北青、哈闌北等處,仍然進行著燒殺擄掠,高麗軍的元帥沈德符、洪徵、安柱、黃希碩、鄭承可等人和倭寇在洪原的大門嶺北邊交戰,但是高麗軍的將帥們都慘遭敗戰而逃亡,倭寇的勢力更加的旺盛。所以李成桂自請出戰,前往咸州,與高麗軍的將帥們會合,第二天便於倭寇盤據的兔兒洞周邊做軍事埋伏行動。倭寇群聚洞內的東山和西山,李成桂率領李之蘭、高呂、趙英珪、安從儉、韓那海、金天、崔景、李玄景、河石柱、李柔、全世、韓思友、李都景等百餘名騎兵,徐緩地行軍經過其間,倭寇看見高麗軍士數量很少又行進速度緩慢,而不能預測將如何攻擊,於是李成桂軍隊便向東西兩側的倭寇敵軍前進,並成立一個陣營,來招降倭賊,否則將予以痛擊,而倭賊方面沒有做出決定的回應,李成桂便命令李之蘭、高呂、趙英珪等人引誘倭賊進入高麗軍所埋伏的陷阱中,而全部都被高麗軍給消滅了。再者,李之蘭和安宗儉等一同攻擊倭寇,此時李成桂親自頜軍隊,以單騎從敵軍後面突擊,結果倭賊全部都被消滅了。這場戰役得到女真軍隊的幫助實在很多,這是因為女真軍隊勝利在握的氣勢十分旺盛之故。因而(示禺)王褒賞李成桂殊勳,封李成桂為定遠十字功臣,並且也封李之蘭為宣力佐命功臣。一0)

四、威化島回軍的參與

(示禺)王一四年(一三八八)四月,明朝原來要在遼東開元路所屬的鐵嶺設置鐵嶺衛,高麗政府命令李成桂率領攻遼軍攻擊遼東,同年五月,攻遼軍渡過鴨綠江,停留於威化島之後,因為氣候惡劣,李成桂帶領麾下親兵,向著東北面班師,因此當時有謠傳一首童謠,叫做「木子得國』,不論是軍人、庶民、老人和年輕人都會唱之。之後李之蘭與其兒子李和尚,以及李成桂的兒子李芳遠、李芳雨等一起參與了從威化島的回軍行動。所以甚至於以東北面女真人為主的人民原來不願從軍的人也聽聞李成桂軍士班師的消息之後,爭先恐後地等待李成桂回鄉,日夜爭相迎接李成桂的百姓有千餘名。從此可知李成桂在東北面受到女真人的歡迎程度是多麼地熱烈,同時李之蘭也參與李成桂的威化島回軍,因此被封為一等功臣。一一)

恭讓王二年(一三九0)八月,李之蘭和張思吉一同擊退侵入黃海道地方的倭寇。所以李之蘭驍勇善戰的才能非常卓越,因此對於來侵的女真人和倭寇的討伐都能有效地擊破之。一二)如此,李成桂經由李之蘭的善戰,不僅找回了東北面的安定,也使得國家安定完全地樹立起來了。因此李成桂的朝鮮王朝建國的目標更進一步地邁開了。

五、朝鮮王朝建國後的政界登場

李成桂的朝鮮王朝樹立之後,李之蘭繼續參與太祖李成桂的倭寇入寇的防禦策,朝鮮太祖二年(一三九三)三月時,以李之蘭為主的興安君李濟、南閭等人被派遣到慶尚道,李和、朴葳、崔雲海被派遣到楊廣道,陳乙瑞被派遣到全羅道,來繼續防禦倭寇。一三)

朝鮮王朝剛成立之初,李之蘭也參與太祖李成桂的國都選定問題。太祖二年(一三九三)一月,太祖李成桂從松京出發,親自觀察雞龍山的地勢,想要決定首都的地點,於是當時以參贊門下府事李之蘭為首,以及安宗源、金士衡、南(門言)等人一同隨行前往。一四)

一方面,李之蘭對於李芳遠(朝鮮第二代王:太宗)計劃將擊殺鄭夢周的行動沒有參與的意願。鄭夢周雖然是屬於親明派,但是因為對於李成桂的改革勢力的成長會造成阻礙,所以和李成桂一派的立場有所不同。因此恭讓王四年(一三九二)三月時,鄭夢周奏請斬首屬於李成桂︱派的趙浚、鄭道傳等大臣,卻被李成桂給阻止了,之後李芳遠得知此事,便也奏請處死鄭夢周,但是李成桂沒有答應,而李芳遠為了除去鄭夢周,要求李之蘭擊殺鄭夢周,李之蘭的立場是以「未經李成桂同意的事情,如何私自敢行呢?」的理由之故而拒絕了擊殺鄭夢周的要求。李之蘭的拒絕,李芳遠第二人選便選擇了趙英珪,趙英珪依照此命令,和高呂、李敷等人一同在鄭夢周弔唁判開城府事柳源之喪時,趙英珪等人準備武器,將鄭夢周給殺害了。一五)並且從此來看,李之蘭是為李成桂的心腹,而並非李芳遠的心腹。一六)所以李之蘭只聽從李成桂的命令,而不聽從李芳遠的指使,因此李之蘭不會私下做出違背李成桂的事情。

六、對東西北面女真族的治理教化

太祖二年(一三九三)八月李之蘭代替了鄭道傳,擔任東北面都安撫使。一七)並派遣李之蘭前往甲州和孔州之地修築城堡。六年(一三九七)一二月時,鄭道傳擔任東北面都宣撫巡察使,李之蘭則任命為都兵馬使,來輔助鄭道傳。一八)例如:舉行太祖李成桂的先祖園陵的奉安,城堡的修築讓居民生活安全,適當地設置站戶以便來往,州郡經界的區劃以阻止紛爭,軍民號令講求一致和制定等級,再者從端州到孔州的經界盡量做到完美,這全都隸屬李之蘭的治理項目之中。

太祖四年(一三九五)一二月,李成桂即以後,經由李之蘭的協助,對女真族進行招撫。所以李成桂的聲教從東北面遠遠地傳到了西北面,其間百姓們都受到了很大的薰陶,平安地生活,也愉快地從事行業,田野天天不斷地開墾,人口天天不斷地繁盛,宜州的張思吉於是希望隸屬於李成桂的麾下,不久便班列於開國功臣之中。從此張思吉因而安分守己,從宜州到閭延的沿江一帶設置村落,由守令掌管,成為鴨綠江的國境。而日本方面,倭人也改頭換面來朝貢,再次和朝鮮王朝進行貿易,如此百姓於是安心生活,住所也有所固定,戶口數也更為增加了,內陸土地和海邊的土地,甚至於島嶼等處都加以開墾,毫不保留。如此人民不知戰爭為何,天天過著安逸無憂的生活了。

東北面原來是王業開創的肇基之地,在這片土地上,慕名太祖威嚴和恩德已久的女真族諸酋長從遠處而來,移闌豆漫女真也全都來此服侍太祖,時常佩刀帶箭地進入潛邸,來就近侍奉,李之蘭在東征西伐其間,有為數不少的女真族來投,例如:斡朵里豆漫夾溫猛哥帖木兒,火兒阿豆漫古論阿哈出,托溫豆漫高卜兒閼,哈闌都達魯花赤奚灘詞郎哈,參散猛安古論豆闌帖木兒(即李之蘭),移闌豆漫猛安甫亦莫兀兒住,海洋猛安,括兒牙火失帖木兒,阿都哥猛安奧屯完者,實眼春猛安奚灘塔斯,甲州猛安雲剛括,洪肯猛安括兒牙兀難,海通猛安朱胡貴洞,禿魯兀猛安夾溫不花,幹合猛安奚灘薛列,兀兒忽里猛安夾溫赤兀里,阿沙猛安朱胡引答忽,紖出闊失猛安朱胡完者,吾籠所猛安暖禿古魯,奚灘孛牙,土門猛安古論孛里,阿木剌唐括奚灘古玉奴,兀郎哈是土門的括兒牙八兒速,嫌真兀狄哈是古州的括兒牙乞木那,答比那,可兒答哥,南突兀狄哈是速平江,南突阿剌哈伯顏,闊兒看兀狄哈是眼春,括兒牙禿成改等,以上都是透過李之蘭而向著朝鮮王朝來投的女真族諸部族。)

李成桂即位之後,適當授予女真族諸酋長萬戶和千戶的官職,同時也命令李之蘭招撫女真族,使得女真族被髮的風俗去除,改以朝鮮冠帶,並且改正女真人如同禽獸的行為,讓女真人習慣熟悉禮儀教化,並促使女真人與朝鮮百姓相互通婚,服役和納賦的義務和編戶沒有不同。而且使得女真族各酋長們以擔任酋長感到可恥,而心甘情願地皆願為朝鮮的國民,自孔州往北邊而到達至甲山之間設置邑鎮,以便來治理人民事務,來訓練士卒,同時興建學校,以便養成經書文武之政治,於是廣大而千里的土地全部都納入朝鮮的版圖,所以就以豆滿江為界,豆滿江外的風俗比較特殊,至於具州女真人民則聞風慕義,有時親自來朝或派遣子弟,有時委質隨侍,有時請受爵命,有時徙往內地,有時相繼進上土產品,並且所養育的畜馬如果產下良駒,所有女真人都會不由自主地爭相來進獻之。另外,接近江而居住的女真人有與國人發生爭訟時,則由官方來辨別其曲直,有時囚禁囚犯,有時處以鞭刑,女真人不敢有抱怨於邊將。打獵的時候,都自願隸屬三軍,射到野獸則交納給官府,違犯法律則受罰,這是和朝鮮國人沒有什麼不同,之後太祖巡視東北面參拜山陵的時候,江外的女真人爭先來見,因為路途遙遠而來不及見太祖的人都很傷心流淚地返回。從此看來,女真人至今仰慕朝鮮太祖李成桂的恩德,每次都是從邊將飲酒酣言所得知太祖的治績,因此女真人得知後常常感動不已。二0)上述的李之蘭招撫女真族的成果十分地豐碩,太祖李成桂透過李之蘭對女真族政策的實施可說是成功的。

太祖七年(一三九八)三月,東北面都兵馬使李之蘭與都宣撫巡察使鄭道傳等人完全制定出州郡和站路的區劃,以及官吏的名分。朔方道和其他道一樣功勞不小。太祖說道:「他們的功勞比起尹瓘修築九城而立碑還要好得多了。」可見得李之蘭等人對東北面的經營成果是相當地卓著。二一)所以,同年五月時,太祖和以李之蘭為首的鄭道傳,楔長壽,成石璘等一行因治理東北面的績效顯著優良,而加以慰勞讚許一番。二二)

七、結論

曾經是女真族的大酋長的李之蘭,他活躍於高麗和朝鮮兩個王朝的大臣,由於他追隨著太祖李成桂,在朝鮮王朝建國的過程中,具有相當重要的地位,因此,李之蘭的功績十分卓越,而被封為開國功臣,並且對於東北面女真族諸部族的號召和治理都有極大的成果。他在恭愍王時期來投以前叫做豆蘭帖木兒(佟豆蘭)。來投以後名叫李豆蘭(後改為李之蘭)。李之蘭的父親是女真金牌千戶阿羅不花,李之蘭的「李」姓是李成桂所賜姓給李之蘭的。李之蘭投效於高麗,以東北面的北青為居住地,成為李成桂的部下。李之蘭的身世,根據其族譜記錄所言,李之蘭的祖先就是宋朝將軍岳飛,傳至多代後就成為了女真人了。李之蘭是為青海李氏的始租,他和李成桂少時即結拜為兄弟,感情如同親兄弟的至深,彼此間都能相互尊重。李之蘭之所以能在朝鮮王朝政界崛起的主要原因,除了和李成桂相識之外,就是在征胡伐倭的軍事作戰中盡忠效命,協助李成桂擊破倭寇,女真人,蒙古人等外敵,功勞不少。以及又參與李成桂的威化島回軍,因此李成桂的朝鮮王朝建國得以順利進行。並且,在朝鮮王朝建國後的正式登場於政界,繼續參與太祖李成桂的倭寇防禦策,以及參與太祖李成桂的國都選定問題。反之,李之蘭對於李芳擊殺鄭夢周的不合理的計劃則沒有參與的意原。李之蘭對東北面女真族治理教化的治績相當豐碩,所以太祖李成桂的聲教遠播東北面,甚至於遠達西北面。東北面可說是朝鮮王朝王業開創的肇基之地,許多女真族諸酋長仰慕太祖李成桂而成為朝鮮的子民,可知太祖李成桂透過李之蘭對女真族政策的實施可說是成功的。

(筆者為國立政治大學民族系碩土,韓國高麗大學博土候選人)

八、參考文獻

《高麗史》{高麗史節要》《燃藜室記述》《朝鮮王朝實錄》《青海李氏族譜》

金庠基,<女真關係始末和尹瓘的北征>《國史上的諸問題》四,國史編纂委員會,一九五九

徐炳國<李之蘭研究>《白山學報》一0,一九七一

徐炳國,<李之蘭>《民族文化大百科事典》一八,韓國精神文化研究院,一九九五

崔柱昊,<李之蘭>《人物韓國史》(李朝的人物)博友社,一九六五

李家源,<李之蘭>《李朝名人列傳》乙酉,一九六五

沈載鍚,<從龍飛御天歌看李成桂家>《外大史學》一四,韓國外國語大學校,一九九二

柳昌圭,<李成桂的軍事的基盤-以東北面為中心>《震檀學報》五八,一九八四

韓永愚,<關於朝鮮開國功臣的出身研究>《朝鮮前期社會經濟史研究》一潮閣,一九八三

許興植,<高魔末李成桂的勢力基盤>《歷史與人間的對應,高柄翊教授回甲紀念史學論叢》一九八四

王永一,<朝鮮太祖李成桂建國與女真關係>《中國邊政》一五四,二00一

九、註釋

一)《高麗史》世家卷四三恭愍王二0年二月甲戌「女真千戶李豆蘭帖木兒,遣百戶甫介,以一百戶來投。」《高麗史》卷一一六列傳李豆蘭傳「李豆蘭,初名豆蘭帖木兒,金牌千戶阿羅不花之子,襲世職位千戶,恭愍王時,豆蘭遣其百戶甫介以一百戶來投,仍居北青州,事我太祖【李成桂】,屬麾下。」

二)李之蘭出生於高麗忠惠王元年(一三三一),卒於朝鮮太宗二年(一四0二),享壽七二歲。其本姓佟,初名是蒙古名字叫古論豆蘭帖木兒,字式馨。他是女真族的大酋長,在太祖李成桂的軍事基盤中最重要的代表人物.《燃藜室記述》卷二太祖朝;韓永愚,<關於朝鮮開國功臣出身的研究>《朝鮮前期社會經濟史研究》一潮閣一九八三,頁一三一.

三)徐炳國,<李之蘭研究>《白山學報》一0,一九七一,頁一二三至一二四.

四)《青海李氏世譜》

五)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書「太祖[李成桂]與李豆蘭並逐一鹿,忽遇僵樹當前,鹿從樹下走,豆蘭勒馬回去,太祖超逾樹,上馬出其下,即及騎追射獲之,豆蘭驚歎曰,公天才非人力所及。」《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷l總書辛嵎十一年乙丑「李豆蘭言於太祖曰,奇才不可多示人。」

六)徐炳國,<李之蘭研究>《白山學報》l0,一九七一,頁一二六.

七)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書(示禺)王六年八月「…太祖後甚急偏將李豆蘭躍馬大呼令公視後令公視後太祖未及見豆蘭遂射殪之…有一賊將年纔十五六骨貌端麗驍勇無比乘白馬舞槊馳突所向披靡莫敢當我軍稱阿其拔都爭避之,太祖惜其勇銳命豆蘭生擒之豆蘭曰若欲生擒必傷人…豆蘭便射殺之於是賊挫氣。」

八)《高麗史》卷一一六列傳李豆蘭傳。

九)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書(示禺)王九年八月「胡拔都又來寇端州…李豆蘭以母喪在青州。太祖使人召謂之曰國家事急子不可持服在家其脫衰從我豆蘭乃脫衰服拜哭告天,佩弓箭從行與胡拔都遇於吉州平,豆蘭為前鋒先與戰大敗而還,太祖尋至胡拔都著厚鎧三重襲紅褐衣…太祖縱兵大破之,胡拔都僅以身遁去太祖因獻安邊之策。」

一0)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書(示禺)王一一年九月。

一一)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書(示禺)王一四年四月「(明太祖)帝以為鐵嶺迤北迤東迤西元屬開元所管軍民漢人、女真、達達、高麗仍屬遼…大明復遣遼東百戶王得明來告立鐵嶺衛…五月大軍渡鴨綠江次威化島亡卒絡繹於道…今暑雨弓解甲重士馬俱憊驅而赴之堅城之下戰不可必勝攻不可必取當此之時糧餉不給進退維谷將何以處之…太祖率麾下親兵向東北面已上馬矣…時童謠有木子得國之語軍民無老少皆歌之漕轉使崔有慶聞大軍回奔告于(示禺)是夜上王與其兄芳雨及李豆蘭子和尚等自成州(示禺)所奔于軍前…師自西京至京城數百里之間從(示禺)臣僚及京城之人傍邑之民以酒漿迎謁者絡繹不絕東北面人民及女真之素不從軍者聞,太祖回軍爭奮相聚晝夜星奔而至者千餘人(示禺)奔還入于花園…李元帥願言救濟黔蒼未幾有回軍之舉。」

一二)《高麗史》世家卷四五恭讓王二年八月丁卯「遺密直李豆蘭、張思吉,擊倭于西海道。」

一三)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷三、二年三月癸亥「遣三道節制使義安伯和前門下評理朴葳崔雲海於揚廣道(楊廣道)興安君李濟判中樞院事南(門言)參贊門下府事李之蘭於慶尚道今殿下及前全州節制使陳乙瑞於全羅道以備倭寇。」

一四)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷三、二年一月乙丑「上發松京欲親見雞龍山形勢將定都領三司事安宗源右侍中金士衡參贊門下府事李之蘭判中樞院事南(門言)等從之。」

一五)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一總書恭讓王四年三月。

一六)徐炳國,<李之蘭研究>《白山學報》一0,一九七一,頁一三0

一七)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷四、二年八月乙亥「以李之蘭代鄭道傳為東北面都安撫使。」

一八)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一二、六年一二月庚子「以奉化伯鄭道傳為東北面都宣撫巡察使,…奉安園陵者悉從盛典舉行無遺繕完城堡以安居民量置站戶以便往來區畫州郡之境以杜紛爭整齊軍民之號以定等級自端州盡孔州之境皆隸察理使治內其戶口額數軍官材品具悉以聞所有便民條畫從宜舉行。」壬寅「以參贊門下府事李之蘭為都兵馬使為其副行。」

一九)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷八、四年一二月癸卯「東北一道本肇基之地也,畏威懷德久矣,野人酋長遠至移闌豆漫皆來服事…」

二0)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷八、四年一二月癸卯「上即位,量授萬戶千戶之職使李豆蘭招安女真被髮之俗盡襲冠帶,改禽獸之行,習禮義主教與國人相婚,服役納賦無異於編戶,且恥役於酋長皆願為國民…後上幸東北面,謁山陵江外野人爭先來見,路遠不及者,皆垂涕而返,野人至今慕德,每從邊將飲酒酣言,及太祖時事必感泣不已。」

二一)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一三、七年三月丁卯「東北面都宣撫巡察使鄭道傳,都兵馬使李之蘭等復命各賜鞍馬,仍賜宴上謂道傳曰,卿之功浮于尹瓘矣。瓘只是築九城樹碑而已,卿區畫州郡站路以至官吏名分莫不定制,令朔方道無異諸道功不細矣。」

二二)《朝鮮王朝實錄》太祖卷一四、七年八月癸巳。




http://www.manchusoc...ts/cover/28.htm

李成桂と女真族の酋長李之蘭 ( 漢化本名:童豆蘭 ) = 義兄弟
我相信一個原則:

國與國之間,沒有永遠的朋友和敵人,沒有絕對的公理和正義,永恆不變的只是國家利益.

#27 peepee

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Posted 30 August 2008 - 02:43 AM

系統識別號 110726
篇 名 女真東北面登場的朝鮮太祖李成桂研究
作 者 王永一
刊 名 中國邊政
卷期/出版年月 161期(2005/03)
頁次 27-38
資料語文 中文

由於李成桂家族世居東北面,與當地的女真族有著良好的關係,所以,女真族是李成桂在朝鮮王朝建國過程中最強大的後援勢力,具有相當大的助益。尤其是女真族的酋長,以及具有朝鮮王朝三功臣最高殊榮的李之蘭,是李成桂在朝鮮王朝建國過程當中與建國登基之後的最得力的助手,因而東北面成為朝鮮王朝建國肇基之地,所以,從李成桂登場開始,便與女真族維持十分密切的關係。

Source: http://61.30.31.8/te...p;atliid=110726



韓國徐炳國教授 《青海李氏世譜》,李之蘭的祖先是岳飛

http://surname.info/i/cheong_hae.html
我相信一個原則:

國與國之間,沒有永遠的朋友和敵人,沒有絕對的公理和正義,永恆不變的只是國家利益.

#28 peepee

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Posted 30 August 2008 - 04:56 AM

韓國也有岳飛後代

  岳順元告訴記者﹐目前在南京﹐雖然岳飛的後代沒有秦檜後代人數眾多﹐但在全國看來﹐岳飛後代大概已經有七八十萬人﹐規模十分龐大。甚至在韓國﹐都有岳飛後代﹐“韓國岳飛後裔有1200余戶﹐是岳飛五子岳霆的後代。”

  元代﹐岳飛的第七世孫岳豆蘭因功勞被朝廷授青海伯封號﹐後去高麗做官﹐並留居下來﹐後代遂世世代代生活在了朝鮮半島上。岳豆蘭留居高麗後﹐改名叫做李之蘭﹐這一支姓李的岳飛後裔家族在韓國歷史上佔有很重要的地位﹐曾經涌現出李重老﹑李希唐等幾十位文官武將。近年﹐韓國岳飛後裔還多次到中國來認祖歸宗。


Source: http://www.longhoo.n...t1ai595125.html
我相信一個原則:

國與國之間,沒有永遠的朋友和敵人,沒有絕對的公理和正義,永恆不變的只是國家利益.

#29 ghostexorcist

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Posted 30 August 2008 - 07:02 PM

韓國也有岳飛後代

  岳順元告訴記者﹐目前在南京﹐雖然岳飛的後代沒有秦檜後代人數眾多﹐但在全國看來﹐岳飛後代大概已經有七八十萬人﹐規模十分龐大。甚至在韓國﹐都有岳飛後代﹐“韓國岳飛後裔有1200余戶﹐是岳飛五子岳霆的後代。”

  元代﹐岳飛的第七世孫岳豆蘭因功勞被朝廷授青海伯封號﹐後去高麗做官﹐並留居下來﹐後代遂世世代代生活在了朝鮮半島上。岳豆蘭留居高麗後﹐改名叫做李之蘭﹐這一支姓李的岳飛後裔家族在韓國歷史上佔有很重要的地位﹐曾經涌現出李重老﹑李希唐等幾十位文官武將。近年﹐韓國岳飛後裔還多次到中國來認祖歸宗。


Source: http://www.longhoo.n...t1ai595125.html

Care to summarize the info posted in the last couple of posts in to English? Not everyone on here can read Chinese.

#30 peepee

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Posted 31 August 2008 - 04:57 AM

Hi ... ghostexorcist

The book titles 女真東北面登場的朝鮮太祖李成桂研究 published in Taiwan by historian 王永一.It's about Yue Fei family and identified his 5th son 岳霆 's Jurchenized offspring named 李之蘭 who was a Jurchen chief provided military support to ( 李成桂 ) Yi Seong-gye's founding of Chosun Dynasty ( 朝鮮王朝 ) .

I will work on the English translation tomorrow,my language ability is limited though.May be,Yun or another CHF fluent bi-lingual member(s) can help out.


I see you have strong interest in Yue Fei

http://www.chinahist...p...c=12568&hl=
我相信一個原則:

國與國之間,沒有永遠的朋友和敵人,沒有絕對的公理和正義,永恆不變的只是國家利益.




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