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Japanese Haplogroup O3a5 from Han Chinese


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#1 hhug

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Posted 07 February 2008 - 07:08 PM

Half of the Japanese are descended from their native Jomon (ie Ainu). But, the other half is from the Yayoi. These Yayoi are from 3 strains: Korean, Han Chinese and Wu-Yue Chinese.

25% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O2b marker. This is also the most common marker found in Koreans.

20% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O3 marker. Overwhelmingly, most of the O3 markers found among the Japanese are of the O3a5 subclade. it is also the most common one found among Han Chinese today.

4% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O1 marker. This marker is found among the non-Han southern ethnic groups (ie Austronesian, Austroiloid, etc.). About 10% of southern Han in southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi also have this marker. Undoubtedly this was the original genetic marker of Wu-Yue and Bai-Yue people.

Basically, half of Yayoi Japanese originated from Koreans and the other half came from Chinese (Han and Wu-Yue).

#2 Chanpuru

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Posted 07 February 2008 - 08:31 PM

hi dingy

if you're going to quote Wikipedia, do it correctly

20% of Japanese are from O3, not O3a5. O3 is found in Chinese as well as Viets, Manchus, Koreans, Polynesians, etc.
O3a5 is exclusive to Sino-Tibetan speakers.


http://en.wikipedia....roup_O3_(Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup O3 (M122) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

Haplogroup O3 is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup O. Some researchers believe that it first appeared in China approximately 10,000 years ago. However, others believe that the high internal diversity of Haplogroup O3 indicates a late Pleistocene (Upper Paleolithic) origin in South China or Southeast Asia of the M122 mutation that defines the entire O3 clade, while the common presence among a wide variety of modern East and Southeast Asian nations of closely related haplotypes belonging to certain subclades of Haplogroup O3 is considered to point to a recent (e.g., Holocene) geographic dispersion of a certain subset of the ancient variation within Haplogroup O3. The spread of these particular subsets of Haplogroup O3 is conjectured to be closely associated with the sudden agricultural boom associated with rice farming.

Although Haplogroup O3 appears to be primarily associated with Chinese populations, it also forms a significant component of the Y-chromosome diversity of most modern populations of the East Asian region. Haplogroup O3 is found in over 50% of all modern Chinese males (ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of the Han ethnicity), about 40% of Manchurian, Korean, and Vietnamese males, about 35% of Filipino and Malaysian males, about 25%[1] of Zhuang males, and about 15%[2] to 20%[3] of Japanese males. The distribution of Haplogroup O3 stretches far into Central Asia (approx. 18% of Khalkh Mongols and approx. 6.2% of Altayans[4]) and Oceania (approx. 25% of Polynesians), albeit with reduced frequencies of most subclades. It should be noted that Haplogroup O3* Y-chromosomes, which are not defined by any identified downstream markers, are actually more common among certain non-Chinese populations than among Chinese ones, and the presence of these O3* Y-chromosomes among various populations of Central Asia, East Asia, and Oceania is more likely to reflect a very ancient shared ancestry of these populations rather than the result of any historical events. It remains to be seen whether Haplogroup O3* Y-chromosomes can be parsed into distinct subclades that display significant geographical or ethnic correlations.

Among all the populations of East and Southeast Asia, Haplogroup O3 is most closely associated with those that speak a Sinitic, Tibeto-Burman, or Hmong-Mien language. Haplogroup O3 comprises about 50% or more of the total Y-chromosome variation among the populations of each of these language families. The Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman language families are generally believed to be derived from a common Sino-Tibetan protolanguage, and most linguists place the homeland of the Sino-Tibetan language family somewhere in northern China. The Hmong-Mien languages and cultures, for various archaeological and ethnohistorical reasons, are also generally believed to have derived from a source somewhere north of their current distribution, perhaps in northern or central China. The Tibetans, however, despite the fact that they speak a language of the Tibeto-Burman language family, have a very high percentage of the otherwise rare Haplogroup D1, which is also found at much lower frequencies throughout Central and Northeast Asia. These facts suggest that Haplogroup O3 is characteristic of the easterly part of the zone of transition between the Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian genepools: namely, the region that comprises the North China Plain and the area between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. It is notable that Haplogroup O3 is the only haplogroup that occurs at high frequencies among populations that possess Northeast Asian genetic characteristics as well as among populations that possess Southeast Asian genetic characteristics.

Haplogroup O3 has been implicated as a diagnostic genetic marker of the Austronesian expansion when it is found in populations of Oceania. Its distribution in Oceania is mostly limited to the traditionally Austronesian culture zones, including moderately high frequencies in the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Polynesia, with generally lower frequencies found in coastal and island Melanesia, Micronesia, and Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

The subgroup O3a5-M134 is particularly closely associated with Sino-Tibetan populations, and it is generally not found outside of areas where a Sino-Tibetan language is currently spoken or that are historically supposed to have suffered Chinese colonization or immigration, such as Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia. However, its presence among non-Sino-Tibetan populations is always very limited and never amounts to more than 10% of the total Y-chromosome diversity. There are also reports that Y-chromosomes belonging to Haplogroup O3a5 have been sampled from populations of such far-flung places as Western Samoa. Surprisingly, Haplogroup O3a5-M134 Y-chromosomes have also been found in about 1% to 3% of indigenous Australian men in the northwest of that continent, which might indicate that a certain degree of contact has occurred between the Austronesian expansion from Asia and some indigenous Australian populations. The fact that Haplogroup O3a5 is so strongly associated with Chinese populations, however, and the fact that no Y-chromosome haplogroups characteristic of Austronesian populations have been found among these indigenous Australian populations may be taken to suggest the possibility of some direct Chinese-Australian contact in the precolonial era.

Haplogroup O3's brother clade, Haplogroup O1, displays a similar geographical distribution, being found among nearly all the populations of East and Southeast Asia, but generally at a frequency much lower than that of Haplogroup O3. Another brother clade, Haplogroup O2, has an impressive extent of dispersal, as it is found among the males of populations as widely separated as the Mundas of India and the Japanese of Japan; however, Haplogroup O2's distribution is much more patchy, and the Haplogroup O2 Y-chromosomes found among the Mundas and the Japanese belong to distinct subclades.

Edited by ryukyurhymer, 07 February 2008 - 08:33 PM.


#3 Yang Zongbao

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Posted 07 February 2008 - 08:36 PM

Uhm. Is there some obsession on genetics here?

Please put this discussion in anthropology.
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#4 MC420

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Posted 07 February 2008 - 10:09 PM

Half of the Japanese are descended from their native Jomon (ie Ainu). But, the other half is from the Yayoi. These Yayoi are from 3 strains: Korean, Han Chinese and Wu-Yue Chinese.

25% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O2b marker. This is also the most common marker found in Koreans.

20% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O3 marker. Overwhelmingly, most of the O3 markers found among the Japanese are of the O3a5 subclade. it is also the most common one found among Han Chinese today.

4% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O1 marker. This marker is found among the non-Han southern ethnic groups (ie Austronesian, Austroiloid, etc.). About 10% of southern Han in southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi also have this marker. Undoubtedly this was the original genetic marker of Wu-Yue and Bai-Yue people.

Basically, half of Yayoi Japanese originated from Koreans and the other half came from Chinese (Han and Wu-Yue).


Pls cite your source of references regarding your assertion or interpretation of such genetic reports otherwise it'd be considered as hearsay at best (of course ... subject for deletion as well)!

#5 Guest_dingy_*

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 12:13 AM

Here is " C & P " post written by a Japanophile @ J-oriented forum .... :unsure:


Japanese genes(Haplogroups)

Hey, I'm a person interested in human genetics. And also how it ties into Japan.

Now I already know the male or Y-DNA of Japan.
Japan has Haplogroup N(Nordic), Haplogroup C(Mongol), Haplogroup D(Tibetan) and Haplogroup O(Sino) in their population.

But what of the mtDNA. The Female mtDNA?
That I'm not so knowledgeable about.

I do this about Japan's mtDNA thus far:
Japan has Haplogroup B(Mongol), Haplogroup F(Sino) and Haplogroup Y(Nivkh) in their population.
But what of the other haplogroups? Does Japan have Haplogroup G, Haplogroup Z or Haplogroup W?

#6 Guest_dingy_*

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 12:29 AM

Japanese DNA chart in specific percentages ..... :notworthy:

http://www.kumanolif...istory/dna.html

#7 ChineseMythDragon

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 04:09 AM

hhug has no knowledge of history and he refuses to cite any sources to support his evidence.

He even insists that since Koreans have 1 specific codon (mind you there are 50,000,000 codons in the human body) related to southern Chinese, then there must have been a massive rape of Koreans by southern Chinese and he doesnt even post any evidence of this!

In other words, I think it's best to ignore this person.

Edited by ChineseMythDragon, 08 February 2008 - 04:09 AM.


#8 hhug

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 02:48 PM

Here are some sites:

http://cvjugo.blogsp...atrilineal.html

http://img230.images...503/geness6.jpg

Edited by hhug, 08 February 2008 - 03:03 PM.


#9 Chanpuru

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 03:31 PM

Here are some sites:

http://cvjugo.blogsp...atrilineal.html

http://img230.images...503/geness6.jpg


your own link shows that the Japanese have only 12.4% of O3a5, Mongols at around 16%, Manchu around 15%, Koreans at 20% and Hans at 41%.
there's no data on Japanese O1 that backs up your claim, but does list quite a few non S.E Asian groups with O1 (Mongols, Manchus, etc) that may challenge your claim of it being limited to S.E Asian groups.

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Posted 08 February 2008 - 08:31 PM

I just read one dull response from a Japanese forumite to hhug's identical thread title @ J-oriented forum .... :unsure:


Japanese are a hybrid of all Asians,but all human beings are more or less hybrids.

WHY you are interested in genes ?

#11 Moonstone

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Posted 13 February 2008 - 03:51 AM

I have noticed several inaccuracies in hhug's post, which I will proceed to point out below.

25% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O2b marker. This is also the most common marker found in Koreans.


First, 25% is a low (in other words, "conservative") estimate of the frequency of haplogroup O2b among Japanese. In fact, 25% is the lowest frequency of haplogroup O2b I have ever encountered in any published study of Japanese Y-chromosome DNA. The frequency of haplogroup O2b among most Japanese samples is over 30%.

Second, haplogroup O2b is generally not the most common Y-DNA haplogroup found among Koreans. The frequency of haplogroup O3-M122 exceeds the frequency of haplogroup O2b among the samples of Koreans that have been analyzed for most published studies of Korean Y-chromosome diversity. For example, Wells et al. (2001) "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity" found haplogroup O3-M122 in 36%, haplogroup O*(xO1a-M119, O2a-M95, O3-M122) in 31%, and haplogroup O1a-M119 in 4% of a sample of 45 Koreans. Even if all the O*(xO1a, O2a, O3) were actually haplogroup O2b, the frequency would still be only 31%, which is less than the 36% of this sample who belonged to haplogroup O3-M122. Results from other studies, which sampled larger numbers of Koreans, are as follows:

Xue et al., "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in population expansion times":
19/68 = 28% haplogroup O2b
27/68 = 40% haplogroup O3
(Note that the 68 Korean samples of Xue et al. include both South Koreans (hanguk-saram) and Koreans in China (chaoxian-zu).)

Hammer et al., "Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-Gatherer and Farmer Y-chromosomes":
28/75 = 37% haplogroup O2b
30/75 = 40% haplogroup O3
(Note that the 75 Korean samples of Hammer et al. were all obtained from South Korean subjects.)

Kim et al. (2007), "Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean Population":
29/110 = 26% haplogroup O2b
50/110 = 45% haplogroup O3

Hong, S. B., Jin, H. J., Kwak, K. D., Kim, W. (2006), "Y-chromosome Haplogroup O3-M122 Variation in East Asia and Its Implications for the Peopling of Korea":
31/154 = 20% haplogroup O2b
65/154 = 42% haplogroup O3

As you may see in the above results, the proportion of haplogroup O2b among samples of Koreans has tended to be negatively correlated with the sample size; in other words, the trend in studies of Korean Y-DNA is to find lesser percentages of haplogroup O2b in studies with larger sample sizes, and the frequency of the various haplogroups among larger samples should approach the true frequency of haplogroup O2b among the entire Korean population. The studies that have taken small samples (e.g. Wells et al. 2001) have probably overestimated the frequency of haplogroup O2b among Koreans. In contrast, the frequency of haplogroup O3 has tended to be positively correlated with sample size, which means that the true frequency of haplogroup O3 among the entire Korean population is likely to be at the higher end of the estimates (e.g., higher than 40%). The true frequency of haplogroup O2b among Koreans is likely somewhere between 20% and 30%. Thus, haplogroup O3-M122 is clearly the predominant Y-chromosome haplogroup among Korean males, and hhug's claim that haplogroup O2b is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among Koreans is false.

Third, haplogroup O2b does not represent a homogenous group; the haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes found among Koreans are mostly not of the same type as the haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes typically found among Japanese. Among Koreans who belong to haplogroup O2b, about 4/5 of the haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes belong to the O2b1*(xO2b1a) clade, while only about 1/5 (or even fewer) of the Korean haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes belong to the O2b1a clade. On the other hand, among Japanese who belong to haplogroup O2b, the proportions are reversed; about 4/5 (or more) of the haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes among Japanese belong to the O2b1a clade, while only 1/5 (or fewer) of Japanese haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes belong to the O2b1*(xO2b1a) clade.

Fourth, although it is not often talked about, both the Korean type of haplogroup O2b (i.e. haplogroup O2b1*) and the Japanese type of haplogroup O2b (i.e. haplogroup O2b1a) are found among some populations in Southeast Asia. Haplogroup O2b (including the typically Japanese subclade, O2b1a) has been found in approximately 5% of several samples of populations in Thailand and Vietnam, for example. Besides the typically Korean haplogroup O2b1*(xO2b1a) and the typically Japanese haplogroup O2b1a, there exists yet another type (or types) of haplogroup O2b, namely haplogroup O2b*(xO2b1), which has been found at low frequency (<5%) among indigenous populations of Manchuria and Korea. Frankly speaking, at the present state of research, the origin, diversification, and dispersal of haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes all remain uncertain.

20% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O3 marker. Overwhelmingly, most of the O3 markers found among the Japanese are of the O3a5 subclade. it is also the most common one found among Han Chinese today.


hhug has gotten one thing right: most of the haplogroup O3 Y-chromosomes found among Japanese samples belong to the O3a5 subclade. In fact, most Japanese haplogroup O3 Y-chromosomes can be defined all the way to haplogroup O3a5a-M117. Besides the Japanese, haplogroup O3a5a-M117 Y-chromosomes are the most common type of haplogroup O among the Tibetans and some other populations of western China, including western Mongol groups. In eastern China, and particularly in southeastern China, haplogroup O3*(xO3a5) is more common than haplogroup O3a5 or haplogroup O3a5a. In Korea, haplogroup O3a5 and haplogroup O3*(xO3a5) are distributed rather evenly, each accounting for about 50% of Korean haplogroup O3, but haplogroup O3a5a is not particularly common in Korea, as most Korean haplogroup O3a5 Y-chromosomes are O3a5-M134*(xO3a5a), and thus do not belong to the typically Japanese and Tibetan subclade, haplogroup O3a5a-M117. In case you were wondering, the haplogroup O3 Y-chromosomes found among Austronesians are mostly haplogroup O3-M122*(xO3a5); haplogroup O3*(xO3a5) is actually the most common haplogroup among Filipinos, and the second most common haplogroup among Polynesians. Haplogroup O3 Y-chromosomes among the Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations of India and Burma, on the other hand, are almost entirely haplogroup O3a5 (and especially haplogroup O3a5a), just like the Tibetans and Japanese. Thus, there seems to be a sort of Tibeto-Burman-Japanese ("Western China"?) linkage versus a Sino-Austronesian ("Eastern China"?) linkage in the distribution of haplogroup O3, while Koreans (and most other so-called "Altaic" groups, actually, as well as some samples of Han from North China) occupy an ambiguous, intermediate position, close to the Hmong-Mien groups, in regards to the subtypes of haplogroup O3 Y-chromosomes found among them.

However, the two other claims that hhug has made in regards to haplogroup O3 are questionable. For one, 20% is a rather high estimate of the frequency of haplogroup O3 among Japanese; the true frequency of haplogroup O3 among Japanese is likely to be somewhere between 15% and 20%. For another, haplogroup O3a5 is probably not the most common type of haplogroup O3 found among modern Han Chinese; Bo Wen et al.'s study of Han Chinese populations from North and South China, for example, found haplogroup O3*(xO3a5) to be the most common type of haplogroup O3, and overall the most frequently occurring haplogroup, among Han Chinese, especially in southern China. Xue et al. also found haplogroup O3*(xO3a5) to be most common among Han in southern China, whereas both O3*(xO3a5) and O3a5 are equally common among Han in northern China.

4% of Japanese are of the Haplogroup O1 marker. This marker is found among the non-Han southern ethnic groups (ie Austronesian, Austroiloid, etc.). About 10% of southern Han in southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi also have this marker. Undoubtedly this was the original genetic marker of Wu-Yue and Bai-Yue people.


False. Provide sources for the figure of 4% haplogroup O1 among Japanese. According to reputable published sources, including Hammer et al.'s "Dual Origins of the Japanese" study, haplogroup O1 is completely absent from the Japanese population. Again, this is similar to the Tibetans, among whom haplogroup O1 is practically nonexistant.

And haplogroup O1 (which is almost always actually haplogroup O1a-M119) is not common among Australoids; it is only common among Austronesians (particularly Taiwanese Austronesians, AKA Formosans), Tai-Kadai peoples (particularly the Hlai/Li people of Hainan), and eastern/southern Han Chinese (particularly those in the region of the Yangtze river delta and around the southern coast of China). Thus, it can be said that haplogroup O1 is typical of Mongoloid populations of the eastern and southern coasts of China and nearby islands, such as Taiwan, the Philippines, Hainan, and parts of Indonesia.

I suspect that hhug has confused haplogroup O1 with haplogroup O2a-M95, which actually is found in a minority (approx. 4% or less) of Japanese samples. Haplogroup O2a-M95 is related to the haplogroup O2b Y-chromosomes that are much more common among the Japanese. The peak frequencies of haplogroup O2a are found among Austroasiatic-speaking tribal populations of India, such as the Juangs (aboriginal inhabitants of Orissa, India) and the Nicobarese (aboriginal inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands, just south of the Andaman Islands), who are both 100% haplogroup O2a.

Basically, half of Yayoi Japanese originated from Koreans and the other half came from Chinese (Han and Wu-Yue).


This is completely unsubstantiated conjecture. hhug's claims do not merit much consideration.

Edited by Moonstone, 13 February 2008 - 04:17 AM.


#12 hhug

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Posted 16 February 2008 - 05:48 AM

^I don't know where you get your sources, but M117 is the original haplotype of Han Chinese (ie Zhou Dynasty). Later, it mixed with Shang and Bai Yue peoples: M122 (O3), M119 (01), M111 (O2a1) in other parts of China to form modern Chinese. Tibetans and Burmese were originally from the same race as the Han. They split away 5,000 years ago and moved west and southwest. M134 and M117 are the only Haplotype O3 found among them today. The Hans living in Sichuan and Yunnan have extremely high amount of M134 and M117 reflecting the fact that they live closest to the region where Sino-Tibetan-Burmese-Hmong/Mien people originated before the divergence and outward migrations.

Read this source:

Doctorate Li Hui from Fudan University of China had analyzed the DNA of Asians to derive a conclusion that the ancestors of Mongoloid Asians possessed a distinctive Mark M89 by the time they arrived in Southeast Asia. About 30,000 years ago, from the launching pad of Southeast Asia, the early Mongoloids went through a genetic mutation to Marker M122.

Li Hui, at http://web.wenxuecit...amp;MsgID=56818, claimed that the early migrants to the Chinese continent took three routes via two entries of Yunnan and Guangxi-Guangdong provinces. In the timeframe of about 10,000 years and developing a genetic mutation to marker M134, this branch of people who went direct north would penetrate the snowy Hengduan Mountains of Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to arrive at the area next to the Yellow River bends. Owning to cold weather, big nose, heavy lips and long face developed among this group of people. Splitting out of this northbound migrants would be those who went to the east with a new genetic marker M117, i.e., ancestors of modern Han Chinese. However, our ancestors forgot that they penetrated northward the Hengduan Mountains from the Indo-China "CORRIDOR" in today's Vietnam. "Walking down Mt Kunlun", i.e., the "collective memory of ethnic Han Chinese" that was echoed in Guo Xiaochuan's philharmonic-agitated epic, was the starting point of the eastward migration which our Chinese ancestors remembered. Li Hui grouped the 3000-year-old Chu and Qi people in the same category as Han Chinese, albeit meeting the ancient classics records as to Qi statelet's lineage from the Qiangic-Tibetan Fiery Lord. The rest would develop into ancestors of today's Tibetans. This seems to corroborate with Scholar Luo Xianglin's claim that early Sino-Tibetan peoples originated from Mt Minshan and upperstream River Min-jiang areas of Sichuan-Gansu provincial borderline and then split into two groups, with one going north to reach Wei-shui River and upperstream Han-shui River of Shenxi Prov and then east to Shanxi Prov by crossing the Yellow River.

The second branch of early Mongoloids, about 10,000 years ago, entered China's southeastern coastline with genetic marker M119. Li Hui, claiming the same ancestry as the Dai-zu and Shui-zu minorities of Southwestern China, firmly believed that his ancestors had dwelled in Hangzhou Bay and Yangtze Delta for 7-8 thousand years. The people with M119 marker would be the historical "Hundred Yue Peoples". Li Hui then pointed out that the ancient Wu people, with M7 genetic marker, came to the lower Yangtze area about 3000 years ago. While Li Hui claimed that the M7 Wu people had split away from the northbound M134 Sino-Tibetan people, historical classics pointed out that Wu Statelet was established by two uncles of Zhou Dynasty King Wenwang, i.e., migrants from the Yellow River area.

The last interesting theory adopted by Li Hui would be still one more possible Mongoloid branch of people who, at about 20,000 years, continued to travel non-stop along the Chinese coastline to reach the Liao-he River area of Manchuria where they developed into Altaic-speaking peoples, i.e., ancestors of Huns, Turks and Mongols. This claim did corroborate with this webmaster's historical analysis of Huns, Turks and Mongols which yielded the conclusion that i) there was no through traffic from west to east in the Gobi or the Steppe in early times and that ii) the Mongoloid had a pattern of raiding to the west, not the other way around by the Indo-Europeans. Today's Koreans, in the opinion of Li Hui, would be the mixtures of the early migrants to Manchuria and the later Dong-yi [Eastern Yi] migrants from Eastern China. This certainly dealt a blow to the Korean nationalists' claim of "Siberian origin". (See Assertions By Wang Zhonghan for clues as to the relationship between Qiangic Proto-Tibetan and Altaic Proto-Hun activities: "the northern barbarians and western barbarians were similar [i.e., Qiangs] at Spring-Autumn time period, but by the time of late Warring States, Chinese began to see the northern barbarians as different from the western barbarians".)


#13 hhug

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Posted 16 February 2008 - 06:34 AM

O3a5 and O3a5a does exist in eastern and southern China, albeit not as much compared to O3:

From Su etl al 2000 "Y chromosome haplotypes reveal prehistorical migrations to the Himalayas:

Shandong Han- 28.1% O3; 28.1% O3a5 (32 samples)
Zhejiang Han- 24% O3; 26% O3a5 (50 samples)
Jiangsu Han- 23.6% O3; 21.8% O3a5 (55 samples)
Shanghai Han- 23.3% O3; 16.7% O3a5 (30 samples)
Fujian Han- 38.5% O3; 38.5% O3a5 (13 samples)
Guangdong Han- 40% O3; 26.7% O3a5 (15 samples)

It reflects the mixing of Zhou with Shang

Edited by hhug, 16 February 2008 - 06:36 AM.


#14 mariusj

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Posted 16 February 2008 - 06:35 AM

Here are some sites:

http://cvjugo.blogsp...atrilineal.html

http://img230.images...503/geness6.jpg



I don't know much about genetics aside from the math, but did you just use a BLOG as your source and NO ONE call you down for it? Interesting.

#15 hhug

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Posted 16 February 2008 - 02:06 PM

I am skeptical and not too trusting on the genetic studies on Manchus. They were mixing and assimilating Han Chinese and Koreans into their race even before they crossed the Great Wall. I think they did a DNA study on Giocangga, the father of Nurhachi (first emperor of Qing Dynasty) and found that he had the Haplogroup C3 (the most common one among Altaic peoples). Some of the modern Qing descendants refuse to participate in the genetic study, because it is said that the Manchus living in Beijing and Liaoning already shown to have fewer instance of Hap. C3. Only the Xibe and Manchus of Jilin/Heilongjiang/Inner Mongolia seem to be more pure.




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