Jump to content


Photo
- - - - -

The Thing You Want to Know About Chinese Science


  • Please log in to reply
663 replies to this topic

#661 vinceliang

vinceliang

    State Undersecretary (Shangshu Lang 尚书郎)

  • Entry Scholar (Xiucai)
  • 578 posts
  • Main Interest in CHF:
    Chinese History

Posted 07 October 2013 - 10:48 PM

侯德榜发明联合制碱法

开创制碱工业的新纪元——侯德榜发明联合制碱法
在化学工业中,纯碱是一种重要的化工原料,它的化学名称又叫“碳酸钠”,是一种白色的粉末。别小看它,它的用途可大呢!制造肥皂、玻璃、纸张时要 用它;纺纱织布时要用它;炼铁、炼钢过程中也少不了它。用它还可以制造出好多好多的化工产品哩!它诞生在化工厂里,是用联合制碱法生产出来的。这个方法由 中国化学工业的先驱侯德榜首创,所以也叫“侯氏制碱法”。那末侯德榜是在怎样情况下研究制碱法,又是怎样创立侯氏制碱法的呢?

事情得从17世纪说起,当时人们在生产玻璃、纸张、肥皂等时已经知道要用纯碱,但那时的碱是从草木灰和盐湖水中提取的,人们还不知道可以从工厂中 生产出来。后来法国一位医师路布兰用了4年时间,在1791年首创了一种纯碱制造法,从此纯碱能源源不断地人工厂中生产出来,满足了当时工业生产的需要。 可惜这一方法并不完善,还存在着许多缺点,如生产过程中温度很高、工人劳动强度很大、煤用得很多、产品质量也不高等,因此很多人都想改进它。

1862年,比利时有一位化学家叫苏尔维,他提出了一种以食盐、石灰石、氨为主要原料的制碱方法,这方法叫“氨碱法”或“苏尔维制碱法”。由于这 个方法产量高、质量优、成本低、能连续生产,所以很快就替代了路布兰的方法。但这个方法都被制造商严格控制住,一点也不让它泄露出来,被他人知道。

20世纪初,当时的中国工业生产也需要纯碱,但自己不会生产,只能依靠进口。第一次世界大战时,纯碱产量大大减少,加上交通受阻,英国一家制造纯碱的公司乘机抬高碱价,甚至不供货给中国,致使中国以碱为原料的工厂只得倒闭、关门。

当时有一位在美国留学的中国学生侯德榜,他学飞很刻苦,成绩优异,在美国学习化学工程已有8年,1921年取得了博士学位,发他听说外车资本家如此卡中国人的脖子时,连肺都要气炸了,他发誓学成回国,以自己已学到的知识报效祖国,振兴中国的民族工业。

1921年10月侯德榜回国了,他任永利碱业公司总工程师,任务是要创建中国第一家制碱工厂。当时要生产出碱,只能按苏尔维制碱法生产。原理说说 很简单,可真正要制造出来可就难了。由于技术封锁,侯德榜只能靠自己不断研究、试验、摸索。经过好长时间的努力,终于设计好了流程,安装好了设备,接著就 开始试生不。谁知一开始就碰到困难。一天,刚试车不久,高高的蒸氨塔突然晃功得很厉害,并且发出巨响。大家害怕极了,侯德榜见了马上喊停车。一检查,原来 所有的管道都被白色的沉淀物堵住了。怎么办?开始他拿大铁钎捅,累得满头大汗,但也无济于事。后来,他想出加干碱的办法,才使沉淀物慢慢掉了下来,终于转 危为安。类似这样的故障还有很多很多,每次都被他一一排除掉了。

经过几年的努力,1924年8月13日,中国第一家制碱厂正式投产了。那天工人们早早地来到车间,都想亲眼目睹中国第一批纯碱的诞生。几小时后, 不知谁喊了一声:“出来了!”大家眼睛一齐朝出碱口望去。咦?怎么出来的是红白相间的碱?按理应该是雪白的呀!大家的心头一凉。这时侯德榜仔细地检查了设 备,原来纯碱出来时遇到了铁锈,才使产品变红了。原因查出来了,大家都松了一口气,以后改进了设备,终于制得了纯白色的产品。望著白花花的纯碱,侯德榜笑 了,他笑得那么舒心,几年的辛苦没有白费,他终于摸索出苏尔维制碱法的奥秘,实现了自己报效祖国的誓言。

1937年日本帝国主义发动了侵华战争,他们看中了南京的硫酸铵厂,为此想收买侯德榜,但是遭到侯德榜的严正拒绝。为了不使工厂遭受破坏,他决定把工厂迁到四川,新建一个永利川西化工厂。
制碱的主要原料是食盆,也就是氯化钠,而四川的盐都是井盐,要用竹筒从很深很深的井底一桶桶吊出来。由于浓度稀,还要经过浓缩才能成为原料,这样 食盐成本就高了。另外,苏尔维制碱法的致命缺点是食盐利用率不高,也就是说有30%的食盐要白白地浪费掉,这样成本就更高了,所以侯德榜决定不用苏尔维制 碱法,而另辟新路。

 

http://tieba.baidu.com/p/130667129

http://baike.baidu.c...GkRkHYiedrVebQB

8b13632762d0f7031e0b39a608fa513d279759ee


For more information on china, see
http://www.freewebs.com/vinceliang

#662 vinceliang

vinceliang

    State Undersecretary (Shangshu Lang 尚书郎)

  • Entry Scholar (Xiucai)
  • 578 posts
  • Main Interest in CHF:
    Chinese History

Posted 07 October 2013 - 10:52 PM

The Invention of Compasshttpwww.chinancient.comwp-contentuploads

The Chinese invented two different types of compasses, wet and dry compasses. The first one was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. According to Dr.Needham, the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass, although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass.

 

The dry compass used in China was a dry suspension compass, a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board, with the lodestone sealed in by wax, and if rotated, the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction. Although the 14th century European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century, the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century.

 

http://nathanman.wor...29/chapter-one/

compass-01.jpg?w=406


For more information on china, see
http://www.freewebs.com/vinceliang

#663 mrclub

mrclub

    Emperor (Huangdi 皇帝)

  • Supreme Scholar (Jinshi)
  • 2,294 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Singapore
  • Interests:Chinese Language/Dialects, history on China, Chinese Culture
  • Languages spoken:English, Mandarin, Singapore Teochew
  • Ethnic Groups or Race:Han Chinese (Teochew People)
  • Main Interest in CHF:
    Chinese Language
  • Specialisation / Expertise:
    Forummer

Posted 11 October 2013 - 08:52 PM

It is really amazing that Chinese Science and technology was already very high in the ancient/olden past but yet today the those best products are made in overseas, while China continues to have more fake products instead


Shantou Skyline (汕头市的天际线)
Posted Image

#664 vinceliang

vinceliang

    State Undersecretary (Shangshu Lang 尚书郎)

  • Entry Scholar (Xiucai)
  • 578 posts
  • Main Interest in CHF:
    Chinese History

Posted 24 November 2013 - 05:53 AM

Miracle Chinese Cancer Cure

One of the latest ‘miracle’ cancer cures hails from China, and it is Kanglaite, a preparation made from a traditional staple food. It highlights the nature of Chinese remedies and the Chinese approach to health. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho reports.

Sources and references for this article are posted on ISIS Members’ website. Details here.

Pharmacologist Li Dapeng began extracting the anticancer compounds out of the seeds of Job’s tears (Coix lachryma-jobi) (Box 1) and experimenting with the compounds since 1975. Twenty years later, he won his government’s approval to market an extract he calls Kanglaite, to help fight cancer and to reduce the side effects of conventional treatments. Li Dapeng has set up his own company in Hanzhou, the Zhejian Kanglaite Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, in order to market the drug.

Box 1

Chinese pearl barley the latest cancer cure

It has long been suspected that the low cancer rates in southeast China could be due to a dietary staple in the region, Coix lachryma-jobi, or Jobs’s tears, a relative of maize.

The species appears to be widely distributed throughout the world. The seeds, shaped like tear drops and coloured greyish white to dark brown, are often used as beads in necklaces because they come with a perforating hole from one end to the other. When shelled, the kernel is white and looks like barley; and indeed, is referred to as such. Its Chinese name, yi-yi-jen, or yi-mi (in southeast China) is the same as that used for barley, or yang-yi-mi, ‘yang’ meaning ‘foreign’, or ‘across the ocean’.

Yi-mi is used in soups and porridges and is a common ingredient in many herbal medicines for treating a variety of ailments including cancer. It has also been widely used as a diuretic, analgesic and antispasmodic agent.

Kanglaite has gone through a four-month clinical trial on 15 to 18 volunteers in a hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, making it the first drug derived from a traditional Chinese herbal remedy to go into clinical trials in the United States. The drug is patented in China, United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union.

No one knows exactly how Kanglaite works, but the drug has been taken by more than 270 000 patients in some 2000 hospitals in China, and has proven effective against malignant tumours such as carcinomas in the lung, liver, stomach and breast.

It appears to fight cancer on many fronts. Apart from inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and killing them directly, it also stimulates immune functions that get rid of cancer cells, and improves the quality of life for cancer patients by decreasing cancer pain and prevents the loss of body weight. It has no harmful side effects on vital functions of the heart, liver, kidney and blood. It reduces toxic side effects of radio- and chemotherapy, and increases the effectiveness of these conventional treatments. When used in combination with surgical intervention, it helps kill tumour cells. It is, to all intent and purposes, the perfect cancer cure, so it is claimed (see Box 2).

Box 2

How Kanglaite works

Studies published in a collection from Zhejiang University Press and elsewhere claim that Kanglaite has the following effects.

  • Inhibits mitosis of tumour cells during G2/M phase of the cell cycle.
  • Induces death of tumour cells.
  • Increases expression of genes – FAS, Apo-1 – that inhibits the growth of cancer cells and represses expression of the gene Bel-2 that promotes the growth of cancer cells.
  • Inhibits formation of new blood vessels that promote tumour growth.
  • Counteracts weight loss due to cancer.
  • Reverses multi-resistance of tumour cells to anti-tumour drugs.

At the beginning of 2003, FDA approved a phase II trial on non small-cell lung cancer, a hitherto untreatable cancer once it has gone past the very early stages when surgical intervention is feasible.

But what exactly is Kanglaite?

Kanglaite is a "neutral lipid fraction" extracted using organic solvents in a several purification steps (see Box 3) and formulated as an injection for patients. It is a mixture of rather ordinary lipids, the precise role of each of which in the large spectrum of effects remains unknown.

Box 3

What is Kanglaite?

Kanglaite is the "neutral lipid" of the endosperm of Job’s tears, extracted with an organic solvent, such as acetone, and further refined and washed in several simple steps, then combined with glycerol and lecithin from soy or egg to make an emulsion in water that can be injected intravenously into patients.

The anti-tumour action of lipids extracted from the endosperm of Job’s tears was known much earlier: it was reported for the first time by Japanese scientists Tyunosin Ukita and Ako Tanumura in 1961, and again in the 1980s by Chinese scientist, Si Pei-hai. But the earlier extracts were not economical enough for the market, and the formulations were not pure enough for clinical use.

The "neutral lipid" turns out to be a rather unremarkable mixture of triglycerides (over 90%) with smaller amounts of diglycerides (about 1.5%), monoglycerides (about 6 %) and alkylacylacetin (about 1%). These lipids have a rather ordinary profile of saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids (16 and 18 carbons).

Despite the wide spectrum of benefits claimed for the "neutral lipid", based both on in vitro studies in cell cultures and in vivo studies in mice, and later in human subjects, it is unclear whether different components of the mixture are responsible for specific effects, or it is the mixture per se that has all those effects.

There is a strong underlying assumption, nevertheless, that the different effects are due to different components in the grain, and indeed, a number of pharmacologically and physiologically active substances have been isolated from different parts of the Coix plant that show specific anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-microbial, hypoglycaemic, and ovulatory effects.

A team of researchers at the National Taiwan University has recently identified 6 phenolic compounds in the hull (shell) of Job’s tears that have strong anti-oxidant activities. The researchers showed that different parts of the grain vary in their content of anti-oxidants, with the greatest amounts in the hull, followed by the testa (seed membrane) and the bran, and the smallest amounts in the polished grain. And the six phenolic compounds also had different degrees of anti-oxidant effects.

Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation of lipids in cell membranes, leading to impairment of cell function. Antioxidants neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxygen free radicals. Excess ROS is implicated in diseases such as inflammation, aging, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and liver toxicity. (See Organic agriculture helps fight cancer, ISIS report.)

Despite these clear successes, however, there are critics who claim, justifiably, that the present penchant for extracting and purifying herbal medicine is anathema to the very tradition of Chinese medicine. Chinese herbal medicines frequently involve not just the single unprocessed herb, but especially mixtures of many herbs in different proportions, according to the needs of individual patients (see Globalising Chinese medicine, this series). The aim is to restore the patient to physiological balance that’s synonymous with the state of health.

The experience of conventional Western medicine has amply demonstrated that knowing the molecular mechanisms of a compound is no guarantee that it will have the desired benefit for the organism, for the simple reason that all parts of the organism are interconnected and intercommunicating. Nevertheless, knowledge of molecular mechanisms can contribute to understanding the whole, once we stop seeing the organism as a collection of separate molecular nuts and bolts. Besides, identifying the different components in a mixture could contribute to quality assurance and standardisation, discouraging forgeries and malpractice in medications that are going to be increasingly important for global healthcare.

In view of the numerous health benefits of this widely distributed staple food, why not incorporate the Coix grain into everyone’s diet? It serves to bring home the most distinctive aspect of traditional Chinese medicine: good nutrition is indistinguishable from health promotion, and food shades insensibly into medicine that’s widely available and affordable.

I believe that the tension between the analytical reductionist and the synthetic holistic approaches will be resolved in the spirit of the organic materialism and eclectic pragmatism characteristic of the Chinese culture through the ages (see Traditional Chinese medicine & contemporary western science, this series).

The more important tension is between corporations that want to extract maximum profit from patented medicines and the health needs of ordinary people as well as the danger of over-harvesting of wild plant species.

 

http://www.i-sis.org.uk/GCM2.php


For more information on china, see
http://www.freewebs.com/vinceliang




4 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 4 guests, 0 anonymous users