My evidence is craniometric, scripts,cultural features and linguistic similarities. In fact it appears their survivors lived until quite recently.
Drinking, singing and dancing are expected to take place deep in the mountains of Miaoli and Hsinchu when the "Ritual of the Little Black People" (矮靈祭) is performed by the Saisiyat tribe once again this weekend.
For the past 100 years or so, the Saisiyat tribe (賽夏族) has performed the songs and rites of the festival to bring good harvests, ward off bad luck and keep alive the spirit of a race of people who are said to have preceded all others in Taiwan.
In fact, the short, black men the festival celebrates are one of the most ancient types of modern humans on this planet and their kin still survive in Asia today. They are said to be diminutive Africoids and are variously called Pygmies, Negritos and Aeta. They are found in the Philippines, northern Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra in Indonesia and other places.
Chinese historians called them "black dwarfs" in the Three Kingdoms period (AD 220 to AD 280) and they were still to be found in China during the Qing dynasty (1644 to 1911). In Taiwan they were called the "Little Black People" and, apart from being diminutive, they were also said to be broad-nosed and dark-skinned with curly hair
One of the most eminent anthropologists K C Chang said that the Dawenkou culture,considered to be a precursor culture was largely African:K.C. Chang, The archaeology of ancient China, (Yale University Press:New Haven,1977) p.76)
Here is much later craniometrics from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure project:
Negroid skeletons dating to the early periods of Southern Chinese history have been found in Shangdong, Jiantung, Sichuan, Yunnan, Pearl River delta and Jiangxi especially at the initial sites of Chingliengang (Ch’ing-lien-kang) and Mazhiabang (Ma chia-pang) phases
The fur-ther comparison of Neolithic Man with Modern Man in China (including inhabitants of Northern China, Fujian province and Hainan island) is made, also based on the main index values and total prognathism of skull, showing that the development of the physi-cal characteristics of Chinese is a genetic and successive course from Later Paleolithic Man to Modern Man via Neolithic Man. Thus, so-called negroid-Australoid racial traits, such as the narrow and long cranial pattern, heigh vaulted crania, lower orbit, wide nose and some projective prognathism (from the morphological observations), themsel-ves are intrinsic characteristics of Neolithic Man in China, only there is a little diffe-rentia in the degrees of display of these traits among groups.
Also the late Neolithic Australoids practiced African customs still seen today.Skull binding and teeth ablation.
Their racial type is Mongoloid and just as in the case of Ta-w(?)n-k'ou bears a certain resemblance to the Polynesian cranium type.The latter is attri-buted to a sub-division of the Southern Mongoloid.The incidence of cranial deformation among the males of Hsia-hsia-hou is only fiftyper cent as against the nearly one hundred per cent of Ta-w(?)n-k'ou.The cranial defor-mation among the females is one hundred per cent at both sites.The pre-mortem loss ofthe lateral incisors at Hsi-hsia-hou is similar to Ta-w(?)n-k'ou and probably resulted froma ritual practice in initiation rites.The incidence of ablation of teeth at Hsi-hsia-hou isthirty three per cent among the males and sixty seven per cent among the females.
The skulls from the Ye-dian neolithic site are closer to those of the Ta-wen-kou andShi-hsia-hou sites than to those of the other Chinese sites in non-metric and metricfeatures.The author believed that the inhabitants of the Ye-dian neolithic site belongedto the same racial type as those of the Ta-wen-kou and Shi-hsia-hou sites which hadbeen considered by Yen Yin as morphologically belonging to Polynesian type
This is modern African skull elongation as still practiced.
However,another study describes the Yangshao as "physically Chinese"
A careful study of the bones of 400 individuals removed from
more than 300 graves indicates that the Jiahu ethnic group may be
identi®ed with the North AsianMongolian group, and also with the
Xiawanggang and Miaodigou groups in Henan Province and the
Dawenkou, Yedian and Xixiahou groups that were later found in
Shandong Province. The range of male heights was from 170 to
180 cm. In the late Palaeolithic Zhoukoudian Cave, `unspecialized'
Mongoloids were described6. By the Yangshao period (3000 BC±
5000 BC)7, the skull measurements are `physically Chinese' and
`modern'6. The physical similarity of the Jiahu people to the later
Dawenkou (2600 BC±4300 BC) indicates that the Dawenkou might
have descended from the Jiahu, following a slow migration along the
middle and lower reaches of the Huai river and the Hanshui valley.
There are definite topological parallels with W.African and Chinese languages. The last group to be assimilated by the Han,the Qiang of N.Szechuan left extremely interesting traces of their original language which have persisted until now.
Their tonal type is African ,specifically Dagaare ,spoken in Ghana as far as Burkina Faso. The language is of the Niger-Congo family .
Contrastive levels of tone in some Niger-Congo languages H, L Dyula–Bambara, Maninka, Temne, Dogon, Dagbani, Gbaya, Efik, Lingala
H, M, L Yakuba, Nafaanra, Kasem, Banda, Yoruba, Jukun, Dangme, Yukuben, Akan, Anyi, Ewe, Igbo
T, H, M, L Gban, Wobe, Munzombo, Igede, Mambila, Fon
T, H, M, L, B Ashuku (Benue-Congo), Dan-Santa (Mande)
PA/S Mandinka (Senegambia), Fula, Wolof, Kimwani
Abbreviations used: T top, H high, M mid, L low, B bottom, PA/S pitch-accent or stress
Adapted from Williamson 1989:27
Here's the study on African tonals used by Qiang:http://sinica.academia.edu/JonathanEvans/Papers/167301/African_tone_in_the_Sinosphere
In 10 out of 12 respects such as language floating tones,toneless syllable pitches,contour structure, default tone pattern etc it is more African than Asian.The Qiang are extremely important for their famous oracle bone script they say is from the Shang.
were skilled in making oracle bones
More on the Qiang, (Remai):
Although now a minor segment of the population, the Qiang is commonly believed to be a very old people whose history can be traced to the Shang dynasty (Gu 1980; Ren, Li, & Zhou 1984). It is also believed to be a once strong and populous group whose offspring can now be found among, besides the Qiang in northwestern Sichuan, the Han, the Tibetans, and many minorities in southwestern China (Ran, Li, and Zhou 1984).
According to HKU Dagaare shares similar ideophones with Cantonese.
More than one lexical verb may be found in the same clause
Example - ‘I bought some water and drank it’
Ngo5 maai5 seoi2 jam2
1.SG buy.PERF water drink
N da la koO nyu
1.SG buy.PERF FOC water drink
Here are examples of Proto saharan script/Shang oracle bone and Harappan script.
The discovery of Intercultural style vessels from Susa (in Iran),Sumerian, Egyptian and Indus Valley sites suggest a shared ideological identity among these people (Kohl 1978).
Some of the craniometric evidence is contrary or deliberately misinterpreted. I think the overwhelmimng weight supporting evidence supports the case for blacks in Neolithic and Paleolithic China. What say the CHFers???
Similar signs appear on Chinese, Harappan, South Indian Megalithic, Libyan and Cretan pottery (see figure 1). These signs were invented by the Proto-Saharans for purposes of communication