I think your intentions are honest, so I just want to let you know that my tone here is civil and academically sterile. In response to your last comment direct towards me, I think that the key take away is not if a certain cultural trait was practiced in a country at a certain point in time but it is one of cultural penetration. How deeply did the cultural influence of one country penetrate the other?
Another factor to consider. China is a big country with many ethnicities and languages that were hardly unified or monolithic by Tang times. There were some Tungustic and Nomadic cultural elements that seeped into Chinese culture, especially in the north. Plus, China's boundaries changed and cultural influence spheres changed. Things that are not a part of the "core" culture do not last long and are not passed down or preserved. Things that may have been practiced in China, because they were not "core" to that culture, were not practiced later on in its history.
Now, with those points established, let's move on the the specific cultural traits. Yes, anybody can put peasant feathers into a cap. However, how you dress your envoy (especially to a nation like Tang) is very important. It would appear that Unified Silla, after it conquered most of the peninsula, consciously wanted their envoys to look like Koguryo's envoys. Plus, the headdress aspect denotes a cultural similarity. Both Silla and Koguryo believed birds to be sacred. Both Koguryo and Silla royal crowns had bird motifs. Their envoys relayed this national characteristic and Koguryo and Silla had similar national characteristics represented by the dress that their envoys wore to the region's most powerful nation (Tang).
Regarding the Yeonji Gonji. Perhaps it came from the geographic region of what is today's China. Maybe it didn't. However, is it an attribute of China's central plains "core" culture or is it a Chinese borrowing of a Tungustic or Turkic/Mongolic attribute that was common in the north? Given the extreme dating of 1150 BC, it would be very hard to verify anything. What we do have are Koguryo tomb murals that show the yeonji gonji used commonly throughout. Consistently through both tomb paintings in Pyongyang, North Korea and Jilin, China, we see paintings of young women wearing the yeonji gonji. Again, this practice continues on in modern Korea. It did not continue on in China, so I'm guessing it wasn't a core part of its culture.
Regarding the wrestling. Okay, do the Chinese practice this kind of wrestling now? It is clear that Silla got this kind of wrestling from Koguryo and Japan probably got it from Baekje. Even Chinese sources indicate Ssireum's relationship with Kogouryo as it was sometimes called goguryeogi (고구려기:高句麗技). It was deep in Korea's existing culture as Ssireum is still practiced to this very day:
Regarding dress. The dress of upper class of the Korean Three Kingdom's Period are generally very sinitic. This probably has something to do with the fact that there was a Qing/Han Chinese cultural presence in the north-center of the peninsula in the form of the Lelang Commandery. However, as the direct Chinese presence was ended by the annexation of Lelang by Koguryo in the early 4th century AD, this allowed the three peninsula kingdoms to establish their own unique variations. From tomb paintings in Japan we find Koguryo and Baekje styles of dress to be very similar to each other, but quite distinct from Sui/Tang clothing. Korean upper class clothing probably evolved after Qing/Han Dynasty styles and followed their own evolutionary tract.
A commonality between Koguryo, Baekje and Silla upper class women's clothing was the multi-colored pleated skirt, per these examples:
The frequency and unified nature of this style does not repeat in Chinese Sui/Tang.
Birds being sacred weren't prevalent just in Korean culture. Just as how Chinese culture is penetrated by other northern nomadic cultures, Korean culture might have been one of the subjects too. Mythical birds such as phoenixes (鳳凰) appeared very early in Chinese history and it is seen as another one of China's iconic mythical creatures besides the dragon.
The Goguryeo Samjok-eo (三足烏 / 삼족오) is also found in ancient Chinese culture. Samjok-eo was said to have spread from China to Korea.
Translation; Sanzuwu, or three-legged crow, is also called "Golden Crow" or "Red Crow", it is mainly used to service Queen Xiwangmu, it is the soul of the sun in legends of the Han Chinese
Queen Xiwangmu is a Taoist deity and the records of her alleged appearance have been found on Shang oracle bones dating back to around 1400 BC. She was said to have green three-legged crows that would look for food.
As for the Yeonji Gonji (연지곤지), I found more details;
연지가 처음 만들어진 것은 옛날은(殷)나라 주 왕(紂王)의 왕비였던 요염하고 음탕하며
Yeonji Gonji originated in the Yin Dynasty (殷朝), which is also known as the Shang Dynasty (商朝) in China but both can be used interchangeably. Emperor Zhouwang's (or Juwang in Korean) wife, the queen,started this practice.
This proves that Yeonji Gonji is not a northern nomadic practice by the Mongolians or Manchus etc.
I didn't show the wrestling to tell you that Ssireum in Korea existed from China, it was to tell you that many cultures in the region had wrestling, not just Goguryeo, Japanese and other northern Mongolian tribes.
As Modu Chanyu said, contrary to many other cultures, black was actually a color of fortune and prosperity for the ancient Chinese, however this later evolved and red was the new "lucky" color starting from around the Zhou.
The people of Goguryeo usually dressed in brown, black, red, and sometimes with lines of intricate golden-painted mythical creatures. Also notice how the people of Goguryeo in ur picture has their hair tied up in a bun that looks somewhat Chinese - whereas the Shilla upper class wore something like the Phoenix Crown adorned by upper class Han Chinese females, usually the queen or empress. As for the Baekje hairstyle it looks weird.
Huh? What do you mean by that there was a Qing influence on Korea? During the Han Dynasty reign of the Korean Peninsula, and before that, very few Manchus actually bothered about Korea because the Manchus back then were known as the Sushen (肅慎) and they were actually lurking in the Primorsky Krai region of Russia (Outer Manchuria) which was quite far from Korea. Qing Dynasty influence over Korea was only starting from 1644 but the Jin Dynasty (金朝) also by the Manchus also managed to occupy Korea.
Another type of Phoenix Tail Skirt (鳳尾裙):http://www.chinasilk...22214536990.jpg
Colorful skirts were also found in Chinese culture back then.
Edited by YummYakitori, 03 August 2013 - 07:18 AM.
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