No author name was there. Quality of translation into english is so bad. But anyone who has little knowledge of history can filter right from wrong
Nephrite- is that Jade?
Hasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan
1. Hasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan
Seal of state inheritance of China is called ‘Chuan Guo Yu Xi’ in Chinese. It means ‘Nephrite seal of state inheritance’ and ‘Treasure of state inheritance’. This seal was owned by King Qin Shi Huang (the first king of Qin country) who first made a decree to build Great Chinese Wall. 8 Chinese characters “Shou Ming Yu Tian Ji Shu’ Yong Chang” were carved on this seal. Mongolian historian Darma guush of 17th century translated such 8 characters “Endless relay-station to lead to heaven” into Mongolian.
2. State concept/meaning of the seal
In history of China, the seal had been inherited from kings of Empire of China to its new kings. According to Chinese history and sutras, this seal vanished/ was lost during the empire of Su’ng dynasty, but, its reality is not clear. I suggest that it may be attributable to Yuan dynasty which had occupied Su’ng dynasty. i.e., Chinese historians may express their opinions not to accept Mongolian Kings to be Kings of China, but it is a just hypothesis.
3. Nephrite seal was owned by king of Yuan dynasty.
According to history of Yuan dynasty, Nephrite seal was found in house of Mukhulai 8 days later after King Khublai’s death in 1294. Since that time, Kings of Yuan dynasty had owned such seal from generation to generation. Chinese scientists disclaim that the seal was real; however, the seal was necessary for Kings of Mongolia to occupy China /to be King of China.
4. Khas tamga /Nephrite seal/ was owned by king of Northern Yuan dynasty.
History of northern Yuan dynasty date from 1368, when king Togoontumur escaped from soldiers of uprising ‘Red Scarf” to Bars city, to 1634, when king Ligden died (Buir is located in the neighborhood of Khishigten Khushuu, present Inner Mongolia. Mongolian scientist Perenlei considered it in the neighborhood of Kherlen). Such a point of view existed among Mongolian, Inner Mongolian, and European scientists; however, Chinese scientists still keep their position on Mongolia and Mongolian history of Ming dynasty, because Yuan dynasty ruined in 1368. Since then, Mongolia had been under the governance of Ming dynasty. Let’s back to main topic! Togoontumur king took Khas tamga to Bars city. There has been no news after the hold of the seal by Ligden Khaan.
5. Why was Khas seal named as Khasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan?
17th century historical sources have first recorded about the Khasbuu seal of Chinggis Khaan. 17*-18th century historical sources have an interesting story about Chinggis Khan’s possession of Khasbuu tamga. To tell briefly: After Chinggis’s birth, a bird came and sang “Chinggis, Chinggis” The seal was born out of the tree the bird sat. Togoontumur Khan’s poem of repentance mentioned about the seal to be a Khasbuu seal of Great Khan. It means Mongolians clearly named “Chinese Throne Khas Seal” to be Khasbuu Seal of Chinggis Khan. Mr. Ishbaljir, a great scientist of Higher Mongolia of 18th century has clearly explained about the seal: it was not accidentally named Khasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan. We may understand it from word Khasbuu, which derived from two words Khas /Khash/ and Buu. Khas is a direct translation of Chinese word “Yu”. Buu is derived from Chinese word “Bao” that means Jewelry. “Yu Bao” means a simplified expression meaning seal of Kings. However, the Kings of empires and countries like China held a seal “Yu”; however, the kings of countries like Korea that were under the supervision and jurisdiction of other countries held a seal “Bao”, which had been given by Chinese Kings.
6. Khasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan and relationship between Ming and Northern Yuan
Ming country collected army in Northern Yuan in order to obtain the seal. Bars khot and Kharkhorum were destroyed on this reason, too. However, the seal was not obtained by Ming. As Ming could not afford to obtain the seal through military forces, it has distributed a rumor that they had found the seal in the neighborhood of Great Wall of China, and stopped to make effort to seek for the seal; but, it has still been taking various measures to obtain the seal. It is true that they have been expecting to obtain the seal until the reign of Yesun Khaan. We may conclude that Ming was a country without state seal, i.e., it did not fit Chinese state traditions.
7. Khasbuu seal of Chinggis Khan and relationship between Southern and Northern Mongolia
In 1378, Togoontumur khan passed away. The descendant Togostumur Khaan used to avoid of Ming warriors; but, he was killed by Yesundur of Arag Buke origin. At the moment, Khasbuu seal was also transferred from Khublai origin to Arag Buke family. It caused a war between Eastern Mongolia (Duchin Tumen Mongolia) and western Mongolia (Durvun Tumen Oirad). Both of these Mongolians tried to defeat each other through misuse of Ming force. If the seal is in the western Mongolia, eastern Mongolia sends a messenger to Ming to offer to defeat western Mongolia jointly and to transfer the seal after the victory. But, western Mongolia sends a messenger to Ming and says “Do defeat eastern Mongolia first, because they are going to rob the seal on the way to you”. They have cheated in such ways. Among the struggles and wars between eastern and western Mongolia, the major part was the struggle for the seal. Eastern Mongolia did not consider Arag Buke descendants to be descendants of Chinggis, they were considered Oirats.
8. The Khasbuu seal and Boghd king of Manchu dynasty.
After the death of Ligden, the Saint, his son Ejee Hongor resigned to North Altan dynasty in 1635. He gave the Khasbuu seal to Nurhaach’s son, Huang Tai Zi. South Mongolian noblemen capitulated to Huang Tai Zi and awarded him as “Boghd King”.
The North Altan dynasty had changed its name as Ching. However, the seal, given to Huang Tai zi, was not real Khasbuu seal. That’s why, there were only four Chinese scripts on the seal “Zhi Gao Zhi Bao”. So Mongolians (i guess it is Manjus) were cheated by false seal to resign (?) to Ching dynasty. The story lasted until 1911s, but nothing is forgotten among Mongolians.......................................
I think AUTHOR is inner Mongolian
Edited by Zorigo, 27 December 2006 - 01:22 PM.