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#1 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 05:53 PM

Just sharing some information on the early Ming army. I only actually started writing this yesterday, and it's by no means perfect, I welcome anyone to contribute more information or corrections if they can.

This post has drawn facts from secondary sources, which in turn all draw from primary sources (I made sure)

Military system

Under the Ming, military service became hereditary. A soldier and his family would be registered as a military household. Each of these military household's had an obligation to produce a young man to serve in the army. The hereditary system in it's early years had guard units numbering 5,000 men, further divided into battalions of 1,000 and companies of 100. Later, the number of soldiers in a guard unit was increased to 5,600 men, comprising of five battalions of 1,120 men, with each battallion divided into companies of 112 men. In total, the Ming army in the late 14th century numbered approximately 1.2 million hereditary soldiers. During the reign of Yongle (Zhu Di) three training camps were established, which troops were sent to in rotation. The first specialised in infantry warfare, the second in cavalry warfare and the third in artillery. While this worked very well at first, it stagnated after 1435 and had to be revived in 1464 by the Chenghua emperor.

I will cover the infantry, cavalry and artillery of the early Ming army individually.

Infantry

The standard company numbered 100 men in the years before Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming in 1368. Each 100 man squad consisted of 40 spearmen, 30 archers, 20 swordsmen and 10 men operating firearms. Later, the army was reorganised and the standard company increased in number to 112 men, though they were likely similarly equipped. These soldiers undertook a sophisticated training program, whereby infantry were well trained for maneuvering around the battlefield and performing specific drills in the heat of combat, much like the training system of the European renaissance.

Chinese armies of the Ming period used a wide variety of spears. All were generally quite long and tipped with a socketed, tapered steel blade. Some types had downward curving hooks projecting from the blade that were designed for dismounting horsemen. Tridents and more exotic designs existed, but it is doubtful that they were used in large numbers in the army.

Ming archers were armed with long composite bows and various types of arrows, including specialised designs tipped with deadly poison .The most interesting of these designs was the rocket arrow. The rocket arrow was said to have great range and power, piercing through iron breastplates and hardwood planks. But was apparently almost impossible to aim with, for this reason rocket-arrows were usually released in massive swarms. This greatly demoralised the enemy as they would be unable to predict the point of impact. Crossbows were also used in large numbers and probably employed in much the same way as during the preceding Yuan and Song dynasties.

Chinese swords of the Ming period had their origins in central Asian sabres. Ming infantry swordsmen usually carried a goose-quill or willow leaf sabre. The former being comparitively straighter and more suitable for thrusting than the latter, which had a deep curve and was primarily a slashing weapon. Sabres were often used in combination with a shield by special fighting squads.

In the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Chinese firearm technology was the most advanced in the world. The most widely used gun weighed roughly 5lbs and was attached to a long wooden stock which was tucked under the arm or placed over the shoulder before discharging. Ammunition came in the form of both arrows and solid balls. During Yongle's second campaign in Mongolia, a Chinese army used arrow-firing guns to smash the Mongol cavalry in battle. In his fifth campaign, the emperor ordered his men to first attack with firearms and then to follow up with bows and crossbows--indicating these early guns must have been reasonably effective. Indeed, firearms were instrumental in the Ming conquest of Dai Viet, and proved decisive in a number of battles. However, for the most part it was artillery--not handheld firearms, which gave early Ming armies an edge.

Cavalry

Cavalry were a minority in the Ming military. However, they were still an essential component of Chinese armies. Yongle once said "Horses are the most important thing to a country.", while he may have been exaggerating, it's clear that the cavalry was highly valued.

Ming cavalry were divided into two types--lancers and mounted archers. The former were equipped with helmet, armour and sabre, as well as a long spear and round shield. The latter were also armoured and carried a sabre, but the primary weapon of a horse archer was his composite bow. Lancers typically charged after the enemy had been softened up with missile weapons, as they proved unable to face spear-armed infantry and artillery bombardment directly. Whereas horse-archers were often the first into battle, meeting the enemy with arrows before the rest of the army engaged in hand to hand combat.

Time and time again, Chinese horsemen proved their worth on the battlefield, though generally when fighting nomads they needed support from infantry. In 1365 Li Weizhong of the Ming defeated a Wu army with a cavalry charge which he led in person. Later, Zhu Di's succes against both imperial forces and Mongol nomads was due in no small part to his strong cavalry. In 1422 Zhu Di led 20,000 elite cavalry and infantry into Manchuria and won a string of victories over the eastern Mongols.

In the later stages of the dynasty. Chinese cavalry severely declined and proved unable to stand up to nomads. Qi Jiguang had to develop specific tactics to ensure success when fighting on the northern border. His armies were infantry and dragoon based, using wagon laagers mounted with light cannon to protect against cavalry charges. This proved succesful--the Mongols sued for peace with the Ming soon after Qi Jiguang was put in charge of the border defence.

Artillery

Chinese armies of the Ming period made wide use of artillery. Both on the field as well as for the siege and defence of fortifications. It would seem almost every military expedition had a substantial artillery train. This undoubtedly contributed to the success of early Ming armies against Mongol nomads and rivals.

Chinese cannons were cast with both bronze and iron. Ammuntion came in the form of stone, iron and lead balls, or large steel-tipped "arrows" with leather fins. Grapeshot was also widely used. Early Ming cannons usually have thickened walls around the explosion chamber, as well as reinforcing rings cast along the length of the barrel. Weight and calibre vary widely, though Chinese cannons seem to have been much smaller than European bombards. Firearms were produced in very large numbers, from 1380 onwards 1000 bronze cannons were manufactured a year, in 1465 alone 300 very large artillery pieces were manufactured. And in 1537 soldiers in Shanxi were supplied with 3000 brass cannon. In the late 14th century, each warship was armed with 4 cannons, 20 fire lances, 16 handguns, and large numbers of grenades and fire arrows.

Several field pieces are illustrated in Ming sources. From 1350 onwards, one of the most popular designs was the "long range awe-inspiring cannon", this weighed in at 160lbs and could fire a 2lb lead ball hundreds of paces, grapeshot came in the form of 100 small pellets held inside the same bag. A more interesting type is the "Crouching Tiger Cannon", a small bombard weighing 47lbs and carried on the shoulder, it had two "legs" for elevation and was stapled onto the ground with iron pins before firing. these designs continually advanced over the next few hundred years, and indeed the latter remained in use until the 18th century. Many other artillery pieces existed, but we need not cover them here.

Artillery seems to have performed well when it was used. In Yongle's Mongolian campaign of 1414, the Ming army arrayed cannons in front of cavalry units and obliterated a Mongol cavalry charge, killing "countless" Mongols and terrifying the enemy horses. In the conquest of Annam, the Chinese used artillery to great effect in the field, on water, and in sieges.

Though effective in the field, early artillery was probably more effective in the defence and siege of fortifications. In 1412 Yongle ordered the stationing of five cannons at each of the frontier passes. Gunpowder weapons had almost completely replaced trebuchets in sieges. During the siege of Suzhou in 1366, large earth platforms were built and "bronze general" cannons placed on top of them to batter the walls, trebuchets were used to launch diseased corpses into the city rather than attacking the walls directly, and thousands of rocket-arrows were fired to set Suzhou alight.

Edited by Conan the destroyer, 08 January 2006 - 04:17 PM.


#2 jiangji

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 07:06 PM

Extracted from Albert Chan, The Glory and Fall of Ming dynasty

Hong Wu Kept a powerful army organized on a military system known as the Wei-so system, which was similar to Fu-ping system of Tang dynasty. According to Ming Shih gao, political intention of the founder of Ming dynasty in establishing wei-so system was to maintain a strong army while avoiding bonds between commanding officers and the soldiers. The soldiers ordinarily were trained in their military districts. In time of war, troops were mobilized from all over Empire on the order of Board of wars and commanders were chosen from Wu chin tu-tu fu to lead them. As soon as the war was over, all the troops returned to their respective districts and the commanders lost their military commands. This system largely obviated troubles of the kind which had so often been caused under the Tang and song dynasties by military commanders who had great numbers of soldiers directly under their personal control. The Wei-so system was a great success in early Ming because of the tun-tien system. Hong Wu well aware of the difficulties of supplying such a number of men, adopted this method of military settlements. Thus the empire was assured a strong force, without burdening the people heavily for its support.

In the Early days of Ming, Hung Wu emperor imposed strict military discipline that no one dared to desert. One of the few causes for the decline of Wei-so system was diversion of soldiers from military tasks to non military tasks of transporting grain to the capital. In the days of Hung Wu Emperor , the capital was in Nanking where farming products were abundant all around, and the provision of sufficient grain for both government and the people presented no problem. But as soon as Yongle emperor moved the capital to Peking in 1421, the problem of food transportation became acute....


It is interesting to know that the decline of Ming military already began during Yongle reign. For firearms, a new type of canon was invented during Yongle era called " shen-chi chiang pao" designed to shoot iron arrows.

Edited by jiangji, 05 January 2006 - 09:24 PM.

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#3 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 07:25 PM

Thanks for your contributions Jiangji, I will be posting about Ming cavalry and artillery soon... I'll also list the various sources I've drawn from...

Edited by Conan the destroyer, 05 January 2006 - 09:07 PM.


#4 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 08:53 PM

Cavalry

Cavalry were a minority in the Ming military. However, they were still an essential component of Chinese armies. Yongle once said "Horses are the most important thing to a country.", while he may have been exaggerating, it's clear that the cavalry was highly valued.

Ming cavalry were divided into two types--lancers and mounted archers. The former were equipped with helmet, armour and sabre, as well as a long spear and round shield. The latter were also armoured and carried a sabre, but the primary weapon of a horse archer was his composite bow. Lancers typically charged after the enemy had been softened up with missile weapons, as they proved unable to face spear-armed infantry and artillery bombardment directly. Whereas horse-archers were often the first into battle, meeting the enemy with arrows before the rest of the army engaged in hand to hand combat.

Time and time again, Chinese horsemen proved their worth on the battlefield, though generally when fighting nomads they needed support from infantry. In 1365 Li Weizhong of the Ming defeated a Wu army with a cavalry charge which he led in person. Later, Zhu Di's succes against both imperial forces and Mongol nomads was due in no small part to his strong cavalry. In 1422 Zhu Di led 20,000 elite cavalry and infantry into Manchuria and won a string of victories over the eastern Mongols.

In the later stages of the dynasty. Chinese cavalry severely declined and proved unable to stand up to nomads. Qi Jiguang had to develop specific tactics to ensure success when fighting on the northern border. His armies were infantry and dragoon based, using wagon laagers mounted with light cannon to protect against cavalry charges. This proved succesful--the Mongols sued for peace with the Ming soon after Qi Jiguang was put in charge of the border defence.

Edited by Conan the destroyer, 05 January 2006 - 08:54 PM.


#5 General_Zhaoyun

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 09:08 PM

Also refer to this thread for Ming's military organisation "Wei Suo 卫所"

http://www.chinahist...p?showtopic=318
Posted ImagePosted Image

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#6 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 09:14 PM

This thread has been pinned! :blush:

BTW, thanks for the link GZ.

#7 General_Zhaoyun

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Posted 05 January 2006 - 09:48 PM

I think, ithis is an important thread and so I pinned it, as many might be interested in Ming's military...

Thanks for posting such great info, Conan :)
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"夫君子之行:靜以修身,儉以養德;非淡泊無以明志,非寧靜無以致遠。" - 諸葛亮

One should seek serenity to cultivate the body, thriftiness to cultivate the morals. If you are not simple and frugal, your ambition will not sparkle. If you are not calm and cool, you will not reach far. - Zhugeliang

#8 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 06 January 2006 - 07:18 AM

I think, ithis is an important thread and so I pinned it, as many might be interested in Ming's military...

Thanks for posting such great info, Conan :)


Thanks for your kind words GZ! :)

#9 jiangji

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Posted 06 January 2006 - 02:28 PM

According to the book, Yongle emperor may have took three thousand Mongol cavalry who had surrendered to him during his expedition and organized them in San-Chien-Ying. This would prove why the Early Ming calvary was much better. Battle of tumu is a major turning point for Ming military as it never recovered its full strenght after that.

I would says Yongle and Xuande make several grave error which indirectly contribute to the Ming army defeat at Battle of tumu. Hong Wu recongnizes the mongol threat and set up three strategic posts outside of Great wall in order to deter the mongol. When Yongle come to power, he lets factions of the mongol which loyal to him to take up these strategic posts. This is a grave mistake as these factions of mongol later join forces with the much stronger Qirat and attack the Ming. For Xuande, he make even more significant mistake by abandon everything outside of the Wall making the Great Wall as last line of defence .

Edited by jiangji, 06 January 2006 - 02:39 PM.

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#10 somechineseperson

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Posted 06 January 2006 - 02:49 PM

Great information, guys. B)

If I remember correctly, during the late Ming the Chinese empire adopted some European firearm technology (and even improved some of them) which again made the Ming army the most advanced in the world in terms of technology. Unfortunately technology is not everything when it comes to military strength. The official Ming Dynasty army became quite ineffective by the end of the dynasty.

Edited by somechineseperson, 06 January 2006 - 02:51 PM.


#11 jiangji

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Posted 06 January 2006 - 03:14 PM

Great information, guys. B)

If I remember correctly, during the late Ming the Chinese empire adopted some European firearm technology (and even improved some of them) which again made the Ming army the most advanced in the world in terms of technology. Unfortunately technology is not everything when it comes to military strength. The official Ming Dynasty army became quite ineffective by the end of the dynasty.


Not really, the Ming Empire are starting to fall behind European in firearms and naval technology. This is why the Ming turn to European for their cannon which called "Hung Yi Da pao". The portugese present three cannon together with people operate them to Emperor Tianqi. These cannon latter being adopted by Ming and brought to frontier and manage to defeat the Manchu. The later Ming army become quite ineffective because the government no longer can feed its army, so they give the generals more power and let them provide supplies for their own troops. This created a situation faced by the later Tang dynasty which the soldiers obey their own generals more than the government.

Edited by jiangji, 06 January 2006 - 03:48 PM.

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#12 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 08 January 2006 - 02:24 PM

Artillery

Chinese armies of the Ming period made wide use of artillery. Both on the field as well as for the siege and defense of fortifications. It would seem almost every military expedition had a substantial artillery train. This undoubtedly contributed to the success of early Ming armies against Mongol nomads and rivals.

Chinese cannons were cast with both bronze and iron. Ammuntion came in the form of stone, iron and lead balls, or large steel-tipped "arrows" with leather fins. Grapeshot was also widely used. Early Ming cannons usually have thickened walls around the explosion chamber, as well as reinforcing rings cast along the length of the barrel. Weight and calibre vary widely, though Chinese cannons seem to have been much smaller than European bombards. Firearms were produced in very large numbers, from 1380 onwards 1000 bronze cannons were manufactured a year, in 1465 alone 300 very large artillery pieces were manufactured. And in 1537 soldiers in Shanxi were supplied with 3000 brass cannon. In the late 14th century, each warship was armed with 4 cannons, 20 fire lances, 16 handguns, and large numbers of grenades and fire arrows.

Several field pieces are illustrated in Ming sources. From 1350 onwards, one of the most popular designs was the "long range awe-inspiring cannon", this weighed in at 160lbs and could fire a 2lb lead ball hundreds of paces, grapeshot came in the form of 100 small pellets held inside the same bag. A more interesting type is the "Crouching Tiger Cannon", a small bombard weighing 47lbs and carried on the shoulder, it had two "legs" for elevation and was stapled onto the ground with iron pins before firing. these designs continually advanced over the next few hundred years, and indeed the latter remained in use until the 18th century. Many other artillery pieces existed, but we need not cover them here.

Cannons seemed to have performed well when they were used. In Yongle's Mongolian campaign of 1414, the Ming army arrayed cannons in front of cavalry units and obliterated a Mongol cavalry charge, killing "countless" Mongols and terrifying the enemy horses. In the conquest of Annam, the Chinese used cannons to great effect in the field, on water, and in sieges.

Though effective in the field, early artillery was probably more effective in the defense and siege of fortifications. In 1412 Yongle ordered the stationing of five cannons at each of the frontier passes. Gunpowder weapons had almost completely replaced trebuchets in sieges. During the siege of Suzhou in 1366, large earth platforms were built and "bronze general" cannons placed on top of them to batter the walls, trebuchets were used to launch diseased corpses into the city rather than attacking the walls directly, and thousands of rocket-arrows were fired to set Suzhou alight.

I've just discovered that each 100 man Ming company was armed with 10 fire lances and 10 handguns...I'll be constantly updating this thread with new information....

Edited by Conan the destroyer, 08 January 2006 - 04:15 PM.


#13 urofpersia

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Posted 08 January 2006 - 02:28 PM

Great info, Conan.

What are the sources you are consulting/researching?
Ur of Persia

#14 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 08 January 2006 - 02:46 PM

Great info, Conan.

What are the sources you are consulting/researching?


I've drawn from ALOT of sources, all of them secondary but themselves drawing from primary sources. These are just a few, I'll compile a more comprehensive list later...

Science and Civilization in China: Missiles and Sieges--Joseph Needham

Science and Civilization in China: The Gunpowder Epic--Joseph Needham

War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China--Peter Lorge

Firearms: A Global History to 1700--Kenneth Chase

Weapons in Ancient China--Yang Hong

Chinese Ways in Warfare--Kierman

The Cambridge History of China: Ming Dynasty 1368-1644--Frederick W. Mote

1587: A Year of No Significance--Ray Huang

Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle--S.H. Tsai

The Glory and Fall of the Ming Dynasty--Albert Chan

#15 Guest_Conan the destroyer_*

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Posted 11 January 2006 - 11:36 AM

Just working on some new details on Ming infantry...




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