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Chinese 6th Army in Burma 1941-42


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#16 hanibal

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Posted 19 February 2006 - 08:30 AM

Dear ahxiang,

A regiment of Chinese herald troops arrived in Rangoon around the turn of Jan and Feb even though Chiang Kai-shek agreed to British request for organizing expeditionary force on Dec 23rd 1941...

You mention in your article that a regiment of Chinese troops arrived in Rangoon at the late of January and early February 1942. May I ask which regiment of which division was this? I know that the 227th Regiment of 93rd Division entered Burma on 24th January 1942, but where and where to it was heading? To Bhamo? Toungoo? Rangoon?

1942年1月24日,中国刘观隆支队(第93师277团)正式入缅接手英军防务,此后第93师主力入缅,从而拉开了中国远征军入缅甸作战的序幕。


At Toungoo, Japanese encountered 200th Division of Chinese 5th Corps and suffered fierce resistance not seen after entering Burma. Beginning on March 17th 1942, Japanese began to bomb Toungoon [Tonggu]. Chinese army took over the defense positions from the British, dug three defense lines, defeated 20 rounds of Japanese attacks, destroyed 20 tanks and armoured vehicles, killed about 4000 Japanese soldiers, and captured alive 400. On 18th, Japanese followed the retreating British 2nd Brigade to the city. After destroying dozens of Japanese on March 18th, three companies of soldiers ambushed about 600-700 Japanese and four tanks at railway and highway bridges on 19th, and inflicted a death toll of 200 onto Japanese. Deputy Cavalry Regiment Chief Huang Zunxian sacrificed his life during the battle. On 20th, another ambush killed about 200 Japanese from 2nd da dui 143rd lian dui. On 22nd, 2000 Japanese mounted an attack at Chinese positions for two days. Among the Japanese dead would be a Japanese Taisa [colonel equivalent] from 55th Cavalry lian dui and a Japanese shosa [major equivalent] from 2nd da dui of 112nd lian dui. Dai Anlan repeatedly beat back Japanese by means of 100 meter wrestling fightings. By March 26th, Japanese intruded into the city defence line. Japanese reinforcements arrived on 28th. Division Chief Dai Anlan, with 9000 soldiers against 20,000 Japanese, persisted at Toungoon from March 16th to 29th before retreating to Pyinmana. Du Yuming mounted an unsuccessful siege of Tongoo and had to evacuate from Tongoo on 30th. At Yedashe, a few miles to the north of Toungoon, Liao Yaoxiang's 22nd Division of 5th Corps persisted from March 30th to April 15th. Facing Chinese frontal resistance, Japan changed direction to attack British on the left side and to attack Chinese in Loikaw on the right side.

Thank you for these most excellent information, ahxiang. This are precisely the same type of information I am searching for "my" 93rd Division and their war against Thai Army in May-December 1942.

200th Division Chief Dai Anlan, with about 6200 soldiers, arrived at Loilem on April 29th, but was ordered to retreat instead of fighting against the Japanese. Dai Anlan received conflicting orders from Du Yuming and Lin Wei, with Du Yuming asking him to go back to 6th Corps at Katha while Lin Wei directed him to Jingdong [Kengtung, i.e., later Golden Triangle]to be subordinate to Corps Chief Gan Lichu.

So this confirms that the area east of Taunggyi and Loilem was under the command of 6th Army (Lt.Genral Gan Li-Chu), i.d. Kengtung (aka Jingdong). BUT.... Do you know the exact dispositions of Chinese force sin the Golden Triangle? How was 93rd Division redeployed in April and May 1942? Where was 277th Regiment? Where 278th and 279th Regiment? Who defended Kengtung on 10th May 1942 whe Thai army invaded the so-called Golden Triangle from the south (Chiang Mai)?

Dai Anlan made a strategic mistake in crossing the forests to the north. While crossing a highway near Bhamo on May 16th, 200th Division was surrounded by armoured Japanese. Two days later, on May 18th, Dai Anlan was wounded when he personally led 599th Regiment for a circumvential attack. Dozens of remnant soldiers rotated to carry Dai Anlan back to China on shoudlers. On May 26th, at Mengguan [Maobang], Dai Anlan passed away.

What was Ta An Lan hoping to achieve by this? Why did he not select the route to Kengtung? Being in Loilem (east of Taunggyi) he was certainly closer to Kengtung than Katha? Bhamo is far north and he had to cross some most treacherous mountains and forest to reach it....

Also ahxiang do you have perhaps any map of General An-Lan's march?

Out of 100,000 Chinese expedition forces, possibly 60,000 were lost. Zhang Langping, however, stated that 80,000 out of 100,000 might have retreated to India or China, with majority deaths related to starvation, disease, and going astray.

I agree with Zhang Langping. I doubt Chinese lost as nearly as 80,000 troops in only two good months of campaign. Most casualties have been inflicted by nature not by the Japanese. Same was the case in the British-Indian army.

I thank you for this most detailed article, ahxiang! I also checked your excellent website. You are definately a very knowledgeable man about the Burma Campaign 1942, but even you don't say in your article anything about the actions of 93rd KMT Division in Shan States in May, June and July 1942. Didn't you find any information? The information I am looking for mainly concern general Lu Kuo Ch'uan's 93rd Division operations in Jingdong (Kengtung) respectively the so-called Golden Triangle?

Here is a short summary of the battles between Thais and Chinese in Shan States that I have prepared:

Now here is a brief summary of what the Thai Official Sources say about the Thai Invasion of Shan States in 1942:

- On 10th May 1942 the 2nd Thai Division began advance in the Shan States in two columns. The left column with two infantry regiments occupied without the opposition the towns of Mongmaeken, Monghang and Mongton and prepared for the attack on Mongsart. The right column comprised one infantry regiment which also arrived unopposed to the outskirts of Mongsart, the first vital objective of the Thai Campaign. The MONGSART had fallen to the advancing Thais on 23rd May 1942 from a retreating Chinese battalion. Which battalion was this? From 277th Regiment?!?

- The mission of the Thai 4th Division was to capture the market town of Mongphyak. The division made their first moves across the border on 10th May 1942. Once the division reached the small town of Ban Ongluek, it was split into two columns, one moving northeast and the other northwest. The town of Mongphyak on 20 May 1942, but mopping-up operations of Chinese pockets of resistance continued until May 23.

- The Thai Cavalry Division, protecting the left flank, reported a small skirmish with the Chinese of unknown strength at Ban Piengluang near the Monghang Pass. After ca. two hours of fightings the Chinese pulled back.

- The 3rd Thai Division crossed into the Burmanese border town of Tachileik on May 10, 1942. From there on the division advanced along the Mongko-Monglen-Mongphyak route on the heels of the 4th Division before breaking off at the approach to Mongphyak, where it was divided into three columns. On 24th May, at Loimwe, a small hilly village just south of Keng-Tung, the Thais came first under Chinese small arms fire. With the help of artillery and Royal Thai Air Force the Thais overcome the Chinese resistance and on 27th May, after Chiang-Kai-Shek ordered the 93rd Chinese Division to withdraw from the Kengtung area to Puén [???], across the border in China towards the end of May 1942 because the Japanese were pressing from the west. Some 100 Chinese soldiers were captured in Keng-Tung.

- After the capture of Keng-Tung the Thais turned to northeast to take the second biggest city in the Shan States, the trading capital Mongyawng. The town was defended (so say the Thai sources) by a single battalion of the 93rd Chinese Division. The battle lasted from 19th to 20th May 1942, when the Thais entered the city.

- Meanwhile the 3rd Thai Division renewed its advance. Capturing the village of Ban Taping on 10th June 1942, a Thai infantry battalion successfully forced a crossing at a point south of the Taping ford, but sustained heavy casualties due to the heavy Chinese resistance. The battalion ended up surrounded by superior Chinese forces some thirteen kilometres northeast of Ban Taping. Isolated, the force rapidly came under the attack and was annihilated. Battalion commander Major Yong was captured and later died in Chinese POW camp. The Thai attempts to save the encircled Thais proved unsuccessful. Do you know anything about this battle???

- The attempt to capture town of Mongma was repulsed. The Chinese held on, while Thai rertreated back due to heavy casualtiues.

- The 4th Division advanced to take Mongyu on the southern banks of the Lwoi River and accomplished its task wit minimal resistance.

- The Thai army renewed its offensive in December 1942 and January 1943 and during this campaign, not without some fierce Chinese resistance, managed to capture Mongwa, Mongpan, Chieng Khang, Mongla and Lwuang.

As I said I would very much appreciate if someone could tell me the Chinese version of this story. Which battalion was defending Mongsart in May 1942? Which battalion of the 93rd Division was defending in Mongyawng? Which Chinese unit carried out the attack on the Thais at Ban Taiping area?
*******************************************************************************

Do you know what was happening in East Burma after Central and North Burma have been lost? The kernel of my interest lies in East Burma (Golden Triangle) between May 1942 - January 1943. Do you have anything about this? B) Have General GAN LI-CHU or LU KUO CH'UAN written any memoires after the war? or any veterans of the 93rd Division? Do you know who were the regimental commanders of 227th, 228th and 229th Regiment in April-July 1942? Which of them defended Jingdong (Kengtung) from 19th to 20th May 1942, when there was a battle going going between Thai and Chinese for Kengtung?

Thanks again for your reply.

Edited by hanibal, 19 February 2006 - 08:38 AM.


#17 ahxiang

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Posted 20 February 2006 - 12:34 AM

I don't have all answers for you.

I had scanned Du Yuming's memoirs and have the following for you:

China had mobilized armies for Burma three times, Dec 11th 1941, Feb 1[1?] 1942, and Feb 16th 1942. British only allowed one regiment in in Dec 1941. The reason British changed mind to stop Chinese was related to the same mentality as HK, i.e., British saying that they would rather lose Burma and HK to Japanese than to Chinese. The Brtitish friend in charge of petrol oil told Du Yuming's logistics officer of the above claim.

There were at least three duels planned by Stilwell, Recovery of Rangoon, Pyinmana Duel plan, Mandalay duel plan. The 1st one was thwarted by British refusing to transport Chinese troops on the railway. Against Stilwell objection, Du Yuming pulled back 200th Div by having 22nd Div fake an attack at Toungoon [Tonggu]. 200th Div persisted for over dozen days, and then 22nd carried on for 21 days. However, the door was open for Japanese 56th division-conglomerate to attack the east. Communications were lost with Gan Lichu army at Loikaw on April 19th. Japanese pushed through 55th Division of Gan Lichu's 6th Corps as a result of Gan Lichu's wrong tactics of guarding dispersed posts with battalions and regiments.

At this momemt, Du Yuming, who already quarreled once with Stilwell, wanted 200th Div to reinforce Taungyi, the gateway to Lasio after Loikaw. However, Stilwell wanted 200th Div to go to Qiao-ke-ba-dang for covering the rescued 7000 British who were coming from Yenangyaung. Several days were wasted on arguments, yielding to loss of Taungyi. After the loss of Taungyi, Dai Anlan recovered it but had to abandon it again on 26th for sake of Mandalay Campaign. Japanese, after figuring out that Chinese troops converged upon Mandalay, then marched towards Lasio in the north.

Dai Anlan was then ordered to chase Japanese 56th Division-conglomerate towards Lasio. Separately, Gan Lichu's troops withdrew towards Jingdong on April 25th. Soon, i.e., APril 30th, Stilwell and Luo Zhuoying abandoned troops for India. At Loilem, the Y-shaped intersection for Jingdong and Lasio, Dai Anlan decided to obey his boss's order instead of Lin Wei's order, i.e., going straight north for Du Yuming's 5th Corps [not 6th, my typo].

After detecting that Stilwell and Luo Zhuoying had no plan for using the cavalry, engineering and armoured vehicles, Du Yuming was convinced that Stilwell had no real plan for Mandalay. Du secretly ordered his support troops and special task troops depart for China in lieu of a stay at Mandalay. The troops passed through Lasio on April 28th, just before Japanese's sacking it. -- Japanese caught up with them near Huitong Bridge at the Sino-Burmese Border in May.

Seeing Japanese sacked Lasio and returned towards Mandalay direction, Stilwell and Luo ZHuoying called off Mandalay Campaign on Apr 30th. Du Yuming, on May 8th, found out that Stilwell and Luo Zhuoying fled to India, and chased them in vain. Stilwell and Luo did send over a wire about retreat to India, but Du Yuming received a Chiang Kai-shek wire at the same time and decided to go northwest for China.

Casualties, according to Du Yuming's memoirs, would be 40,000 remnants out of 100k expedition troops. Directly under Du Yuming would be 42,000 troops. Among 42,000, only 20,000 survived. The loss in the forests was twice more than dead at the battles. 5th Corps direct-controlled troops lost 1300 in battled and 3700 in forests; 200th Division lost 1800 in battles and 3200 in forests; 22nd Div lost 2000 in battles and 4000 in forests; and 96th Div lost 2200 in battles and 3800 in forests.

So, Du Yuming lost 22000 men. Zhang Zhen and Gan Lichu lost a combined 38000. Sun Liren biography mentioned the fate of about 5000 soldiers from 28th Division of 66th Corps. They followed Du Yuming's footsteps against Sun Liren admonition. Only 130 men survived the forests. Both 28th and 29th divisions were converted from Kang Ze's special task forces, i.e., sabotage and guerrilla forces, not regular army. In China, only Whampoa lineage, Northwestern 29th Corps, Li Zongren's Guangxi clique, and Sun Liren's armies could put up good fights. Provincial soldiers were badly equipped and insufficiently trained. As to Gan Lichu's troops, Du Yuming claimed that they, originally dispersed along the highway in units of battalions and regiments, had withdrawn to east Burma without putting up any fight. Gan Lichu was Yunnan Provincial Army under governor Long Yun, by the way. Long Yun, the King Of Yunnan Province, had refused access to Chiang Kai-shek prior to Burma Campaign, Hope the above would help.

Edited by ahxiang, 20 February 2006 - 12:53 AM.


#18 hanibal

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Posted 20 February 2006 - 12:06 PM

I don't have all answers for you.

:cry^: :D

China had mobilized armies for Burma three times, Dec 11th 1941, Feb 1[1?] 1942, and Feb 16th 1942. British only allowed one regiment in in Dec 1941.

Which regiment was this?

Communications were lost with Gan Lichu army at Loikaw on April 19th. Japanese pushed through 55th Division of Gan Lichu's 6th Corps as a result of Gan Lichu's wrong tactics of guarding dispersed posts with battalions and regiments.

This is what I am looking for. Do your sources say anything at all about the operations of Gan Lichu's 6th Corps??? All or most of the information that you are so superbly writing down in this topic seem to be about almost every Chinese division in Burma except 93rd Division. is there really nothing? No books, no memoires? No general books about Chinese Campaign in Burma 1942, where we could check for them? It is not just the Thais in 1942. We also don't seem to know much about 93rd Division against the Japanese. Or do you?

Separately, Gan Lichu's troops withdrew towards Jingdong on April 25th.

Good. This confirms that kengtung was defended by 6th Corps. But by which unit of the 93rd Division? What were dispositions odf the Chinese regiments of this division?

At Loilem, the Y-shaped intersection for Jingdong and Lasio, Dai Anlan decided to obey his boss's order instead of Lin Wei's order, i.e., going straight north for Du Yuming's 5th Corps [not 6th, my typo].

That's a bit weird decision, don't you think so? Why did he refuse to go to Jingdong?

Casualties, according to Du Yuming's memoirs, would be 40,000 remnants out of 100k expedition troops. Directly under Du Yuming would be 42,000 troops. Among 42,000, only 20,000 survived. The loss in the forests was twice more than dead at the battles. 5th Corps direct-controlled troops lost 1300 in battled and 3700 in forests; 200th Division lost 1800 in battles and 3200 in forests; 22nd Div lost 2000 in battles and 4000 in forests; and 96th Div lost 2200 in battles and 3800 in forests.

Do you have such statistic of casualties also for Gan Lichu's 6th Corps? What were the casualties of the 93rd, 55th and 49th Divisions? Especially the 93rd.

As to Gan Lichu's troops, Du Yuming claimed that they, originally dispersed along the highway in units of battalions and regiments, had withdrawn to east Burma without putting up any fight..

Yes, yes... This is it... The regiments and battalions of 93rd Division were dispersed around Jingdong (Kengtung). But there is nothing about which battalion was defending Taiping or Jingdong?! And this is what I am looking for most eagerly. :ph43r: Is there really not a single book in China or Taiwan about 93rd Division in WW2??? :o

#19 ahxiang

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Posted 22 February 2006 - 02:26 AM

I do not have time to go through all records on hand. But you should be able to figure out lots of things by having second thoughts on what I wrote.

1) Golden Triangle

This is historically China's territory. In mid-1950s, PRC ceded it to Burma for sake of evicting Li Mi's KMT troops. in 30-40s, the triangle was bordering with three countries, Laos, Thailand, and Burma. Today, no longer China borders with 3 countries.

2) Thai military action

Gan Lichu's army was assigned to the border area back in Dec 1941. I was wrong about British allowing one regiment in. British never did. The regiment here was Gan Lichu's Yunnan provincial army, and it was assigned to Wanding, a border town. It was considered a Chinese domain.

The Thai military action was possibly hyped. I have to do more research on this. The only major Thai action was that on Vietnamese-Thai border, an event that was used by Japanese for controlling Thai. All major Jaoanese invasion forces had landed at Burma's Rangoon at the south, not crossing Thai border. It seems Japan had respected Thailand's territorial integrity more than Vietnam.

I did read about espionage activity involving KMT spy chief's sending agents into Thailand. American OSS did the same, with Dai Li's help. See
http://traveler.data...m/chapter18.pdf

3) Yunnan Provincial Army

Long Yun, prior to Burma Campaign, did not allow KMT Central Army into his domain. Same happened with KMT attempt during Red Army's Long March through the northern tip of Yunnan. However, Long Yun allowed in communists, and Kunming became a bastion of leftists and communist throughout the war, with the agitation of Southwestern United Universities, of course. For what Long Yun did, Chiang pressured Long Yun in retirement in 1945, right after Japanese surrender.

I don't have any writings by generals from Yunnan Provincial Army. Their role, as seen in First Burma Campaign, was rather limited, i.e., guarding the highways in eastern Burma. There is no separate casualty numbers for Gan Lichu's army. Du Yuming's memoirs, with a combined casualty of 60k out of 100k, could be a rough figure.

Edited by ahxiang, 22 February 2006 - 02:28 AM.


#20 hanibal

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Posted 22 February 2006 - 12:54 PM

I do not have time to go through all records on hand. But you should be able to figure out lots of things by having second thoughts on what I wrote.

Thank you for your swift response, ahxiang. I really appreciate it and I reall appreciate all the info you have posted about Chinese army in Burma, but to be here totally honest with you, you have posted excellent information about almost all Chinese divisions and campaigns in Burma 1942, except the one I am most eagerly looking for. I couldn't help to notice that most of the info that you have about Chinese comes from memoires or books about 200th Mechanized Division or 38th Division. Very little has been said in your posts about "whereabouts" of the 93rd Division in Burma during January -August 1942. Is there really no documentation about this particular division during First Burma Campaign in China or taiwan?

This is historically China's territory. In mid-1950s, PRC ceded it to Burma for sake of evicting Li Mi's KMT troops. in 30-40s, the triangle was bordering with three countries, Laos, Thailand, and Burma. Today, no longer China borders with 3 countries.

Understood. :D

2) Thai military action. Gan Lichu's army was assigned to the border area back in Dec 1941. I was wrong about British allowing one regiment in. British never did. The regiment here was Gan Lichu's Yunnan provincial army, and it was assigned to Wanding, a border town. It was considered a Chinese domain.

Some sub-questions:
a.) Where is this border town of Wanding? How is it called today? I cannot find it in my Atlas of Burma. Alčl I can find is Wanlong, a small Burmanese border town, northwest of Kengtung (Jingdong).
b.) You mention here a regiment of Gan Lichu's Yunnan Provincial Army beign sent to this place called Wanding? Was this the only place that the British allowed for Chinese to take its defense?
c.) Which unit was sent to wanding? Could this be 227th Regiment of the 93rd Division which crossed the border on 24th January 1942?

The Thai military action was possibly hyped. I have to do more research on this. The only major Thai action was that on Vietnamese-Thai border, an event that was used by Japanese for controlling Thai. All major Jaoanese invasion forces had landed at Burma's Rangoon at the south, not crossing Thai border. It seems Japan had respected Thailand's territorial integrity more than Vietnam.

a.) No, it was not. The Chinese and Thai armies clashed in several quite fierce battles for Shan States. Most of the ferious fightings between these two opponents took place in the hills north of Jingdong 8Kengtung), after the town was already captured by the Thais.
b.) I would REALLY appreciate if you could make any research about this theatre of operations. As I said before my only interest for the time being is 93rd Division and her operations in Burma during January 1942 - December 1942. I have been able to find some more information from my Thai friend. her eis what he says: Books on the Seri Thai (including Reynold's Thailand's Secret War) record that by 1943, General Lu Han commanded the 93rd Division, whose headquarters was based at Menghai. The Division was first contacted by the Thais (five representatives led by Colonel Luang Krai Narai) in mid-February 1943 to arrange a truce.

I did read about espionage activity involving KMT spy chief's sending agents into Thailand. American OSS did the same, with Dai Li's help. See http://traveler.data...m/chapter18.pdf

Thank you for the attachment. I will read this chapter during the evening. I am aware of some KMT espionage activities in Thailand and Burma prior and during the Japanese attack.

3) Yunnan Provincial Army
Long Yun, prior to Burma Campaign, did not allow KMT Central Army into his domain. Same happened with KMT attempt during Red Army's Long March through the northern tip of Yunnan. However, Long Yun allowed in communists, and Kunming became a bastion of leftists and communist throughout the war, with the agitation of Southwestern United Universities, of course. For what Long Yun did, Chiang pressured Long Yun in retirement in 1945, right after Japanese surrender.

I am not sure if I follow you here.... Do you mean to say that 93rd Division was not a regular KMT army division, but more like a "paramilitary division" of a local political and military governor LONG YUN from Yunnan, who didn't obey Chiang-Kai-Shek's government?

I don't have any writings by generals from Yunnan Provincial Army. Their role, as seen in First Burma Campaign, was rather limited, i.e., guarding the highways in eastern Burma. There is no separate casualty numbers for Gan Lichu's army. Du Yuming's memoirs, with a combined casualty of 60k out of 100k, could be a rough figure.

I understand but do you know if any generals (or other servicemen - officers, privates etc.) of the Yunnan Provincial Army have written anything about their divisions in Burma during the First Burma Campaign 1942? Any memoires, any diaries... Anything actually... Do we have any books in Chinese about First Burma Campaign 1942?

Edited by hanibal, 22 February 2006 - 12:55 PM.


#21 ahxiang

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Posted 23 February 2006 - 12:01 AM

93rd Division was local & provincial army of governor LONG YUN. Chiang kai-shek's so-called "dictatorship" was not absolute, never was. Prior to 1937, there had occurred the June 1st Movement of 1936, the Fujian People's Government, ... Chiang Kai-shek's ruling base was the middle and lower Yangtze. Another similar example would be New Dominion Province where Sheng Shicai had a de facto alliance with Stalin and Chinese communists till the eruption of German-Russian War. Long Yun definitely did not obey Chiang-Kai-Shek's order. Only China's nationalism and Russian endorsement had enabled Chiang to fight a war on a united front. At the initial stage, Battle of Taierzhuang of 1938, Yunnan Province dispatched its best troops to Shandong, where Lu Han had incurred a casualty of about one half but received no credit for the victory of Taierzhuang. Prior to Burma Campaign, no KMT Army was allowed into Yunnan. Du Yuming's memoirs confirmed this point. Though Yunnan army was nominally one third of 100k expedition force, Du Yuming had taken a number of 42k, i.e., best trained KMT troops which had won the Battle of Kunlunguan not long ago in Guangxi Province. Gan Lichu's army numbered much less than either 5th Corps or 66th Corps. While Du was KMT Whampoa lineage, Zhang Zhen of 66th Corps was a returnees from Japan. The two divisions under Zhang Zhen were converted from guerrilala forces, and nobdy inside of Chiang Kai-shek's KMT was counting on Sun Liren's 38th Division. That's why the initial layout was that Du 5th Corps be deployed the front, near Rangoon in the south and for recovering Rangoon; Zhang Zhen's 28, 29 and 38 divisons guard Mandalay and Lasio; and Gan Lichu's 6th Corps guard the highway in eastern Burma. You are right about the regiment which was first deployed in Burma at the turn of Feb-March. It was Yunnan Province army which was at the front, i.e., Wanding. This is a border town always parallel to Bhamo of Burma. Check the map again, and look to teh west. The Golden Triangle, however, was to the east, near the Thai border.

#22 hanibal

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Posted 23 February 2006 - 08:48 AM

93rd Division was local & provincial army of governor LONG YUN. Chiang kai-shek's so-called "dictatorship" was not absolute, never was.

I see... This explains why 93rd Division performed rather poortly during the First Burma Campaign and did not see any major battles against the Japanese. It was probably seriously undermmaned, badly trained and badly equipped in comparison with some KMT regular divisions, was it not?

Prior to Burma Campaign, no KMT Army was allowed into Yunnan. Du Yuming's memoirs confirmed this point. Though Yunnan army was nominally one third of 100k expedition force, Du Yuming had taken a number of 42k, i.e., best trained KMT troops which had won the Battle of Kunlunguan not long ago in Guangxi Province. Gan Lichu's army numbered much less than either 5th Corps or 66th Corps. While Du was KMT Whampoa lineage, Zhang Zhen of 66th Corps was a returnees from Japan.

What do you mean by "a returnee from Japan"? He attended the Military Academy there in late 1930s?! Do your sources say anything about Gan Lichu's army in 1942 and her organization?

and Gan Lichu's 6th Corps guard the highway in eastern Burma.

And this is the army I would most like to know right now. All what we are getting is about 66th and 5th Army, but there is nothing about how 6th Army performed in Burma 1942, except a few notes that it dispersed quickly and was of poor morale.

You are right about the regiment which was first deployed in Burma at the turn of Feb-March. It was Yunnan Province army which was at the front, i.e., Wanding. This is a border town always parallel to Bhamo of Burma. Check the map again, and look to teh west. The Golden Triangle, however, was to the east, near the Thai border.

Checked again and found it. It is near the place of Ruili. I was looking it south of it. You say I am correct that it was the 227th Regiment of the 93rd Division which was first deployed in Burma. According to my data the regiment crossed the border on 24th January 1942. Do you know where? I don't think this was at Wanding, because that's up north and to my knowledge the 6th Army did not operate that far north. They were in the Golden Triangle area, concentrated around Puer, Simao, Langcang and Menghai, which was also the place where 93rd Division had its headquarters during 1942.

So the question now remains: Have there been published any articles or books about Yunnan Provincial Army during the First Burma Campaign 1942?

I did come upon this article from China Daily the other night, but as you can see it is again only about Chinese Army 1943-45. Nothing about 1942. :(

Fighting Under the Same Army Flag

The big picture of China's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-45) is clear. China contained and wiped out a formidable part of the Japanese military forces, considerably weakening their economic strength in this part of World War II against fascism.

But some details have been neglected. Few are told about the Chinese forces in Myanmar and India, where tens of thousands of Chinese soldiers fought the Japanese army by joining the Allied Forces.

In January 1942, the Japanese broke through Thai-Myanmar border and began invading Myanmar. Since all of China's seaports were already controlled by the Japanese, Myanmar was crucial in linking China and the Allied Forces and keeping them supplied.

In March, Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang, the then ruling party of China, deployed nine Chinese divisions from Yunnan Province to defend Myanmar. The forces were under the command of General Joseph W. Stilwell, head of the US' China-Myanmar-India theatre.

In May 1942, Myanmar was lost to Japan's armies and more than half of the Chinese soldiers were killed. Some of those who survived were ordered to retreat to Yunnan, others to India.

In India, Stilwell laid plans for retraining the Chinese army for sustained offensive operations to retake Myanmar and take the offensive to China itself. The plans soon got Chiang's permission.

In June 1943, the headquarters of the Chinese forces in India were established, with the Chinese New First Army Corps and American Allied troops under its command. Stilwell was named commander-in-chief.

In the following years, the Indian cities of New Delhi and Ramgarh became the main training centers for Chinese troops. New recruits, most of whom were university and high school students, were also sent there. By the end of 1944, 100,000 Chinese soldiers had received training in India, spending several years of the prime time of their lives in the country.

In this special year of the 60th anniversary of the victory over fascism, looking back on this almost-forgotten history, in the English language book Under the Same Army Flag, provides new and different perspectives on the war.

Many soldiers of the Chinese forces in India enlisted on their own initiative.

In 1944, Chen Yongyi learned from a friend nicknamed "Han Yanjing (Glasses)" that the government was recruiting soldiers to India.

Chen, 20, and from a family of 11 children, worked in Chengdu in Sichuan Province after finishing junior high school in his hometown of Huaiyuan in Anhui Province.

Even in Chengdu, "Japanese planes often flew in the sky above our heads, and the sound of sirens always made my heart beat fast. The scenes of massive bombing leaving many dead, which I witnessed one day, frequently haunted me at night," Chen recalled.

During his spare time he often went to a local army club with his best friends Deng Shufeng, Wang Baobao and "Glasses." They met many American soldiers, who were friendly to them.

Every time he saw the Chinese characters that read yangren (a rather informal form of addressing foreigners in Chinese who were here to fight with China), printed on the soldiers' jackets, he would feel a wave of patriotism and hoped to beat the "Japanese devils."

So he and his three friends signed up, without even telling their families.

Yang Yuxiang, a driver corporal, said he would never forget June 5, 1944, the day of their departure from home.

Early in the morning, he and 500 other soldiers assembled at the Wujiaba Airport in Kunming, the provincial capital of Yunnan. "The sky was starry. It was so beautiful," 78-year-old Yang says. Many of the young men about to leave frequently looked up to the sky.

When the C-47 Skytrain carrying them was taking off, everyone looked out of the porthole at the town of Kunming.

Hu Dongsheng, a former member of the New Sixth Army, kept a diary when he was in India.

On the entry of November 20, 1944, the day of their arrival, he wrote down the items each soldier was allocated: a towel, a set of khaki army uniforms, one pair of rubber-soled shoes, a hat, a mosquito net, a sheet of tarpaulin, blankets and a bottle of insecticide.

Hu said funds and ammunition for the Chinese forces in India were provided by the US government. It was the first time the Chinese armies had been better equipped than their Japanese enemies.

Hu said he has kept the diary through everything. "I have a very bad memory. I can easily forget things right after I turn around. But every time I open the diary, the past starts unfolding right before my eyes," Hu said.

In India, many Chinese soldiers established sincere friendships with their American counterparts after living side by side all the time.

Wu Yuzhang, a former private, had an unforgettable encounter with an American nurse named Louise. They taught each other their native languages and spent many happy hours together. Every time Louise came to Wu, she brought with her a red booklet, in which she noted down some daily English and Chinese words.

"When we had difficulties communicating due to language, we turned to the red booklet. Following this pattern our conversation covered many subjects," Wu said. "I told her about the Great Wall, the Imperial Palace, and the West Lake of my hometown Hangzhou."

Hu Dongsheng wrote about many of his American friends in his diary. One entry was about Adlare.

"Adlare gave me a deck of playing cards, I gave him a Chinese stamp in return. He was very happy," he wrote.

Another time Adlare taught Hu how to play chess. It wasn't long before Hu beat his master, a shock for the American.

For Wu and many other Chinese soldiers in India, their lives in the military are now cherished parts of their memories.

(China Daily August 22, 2005)



#23 ahxiang

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Posted 23 February 2006 - 10:45 PM

From Du Yuming memoirs

第一次动员:一九四一年十二月十一日,蒋介石令第六 军九十三师开车里,第六军第四
十九师以一个加强团开畹町归英缅军总司令胡敦指挥,准备开景东。十六日令第五军、第六军
动员入缅,协同英军作战。当第五军先头部队到达保山附近时,于十二月二十六日又以奉令
“英方表示第五军及第六军主力(欠九十三师及四十九师之一团)暂时毋庸入缅”而中止。十
二月二十九日又令第五军勿庸入缅,必要时须向东转运。

第二次动员:一九四二年二月一日令第六军集中芒市、遮放、龙陵,候英方派车接运入缅。

第三次动员:一九四二年二月十六日又奉令:“据英代表请求,仰光情况紧急,请速派第
五军入缅”;“所有野炮、战防炮均应随同出发,装甲兵团先作出发准备。”


------------


Positions:


1#敌情:日本十五军饭田样二郎所部等三十三师团在普罗
美以南地区;第五十五师团在同古以南地区;第十八师团在泰国景迈附近,一部主力于四月初
增援斯瓦战斗;第五十 六师团判断由仰光登陆,当时行动未明,以后集结于同古。至于空军和
炮兵、战车的情况,当时均不明。

2#友军:英缅军总司令亚历山大所部英缅军第一师(欠十三旅),英印军第十七师,英澳
军第六十三旅,英装甲车第七旅均在普罗美方面。英缅军第一师十三旅在景东、毛奇方面。英
空军飞机共四十五架,在马格威尔。

3#中国远征军:中国远征军第一路司令长官部所属部队第五军骑兵团附属工兵一部在皮尤
河附近;第二百师在同古(配属炮兵部队未到);第新二十二师、第九十六师由芒市于六日开
始以汽车运输;第六军所属第四十九师、暂五十五师、第九十三师在景东、毛奇一带;第六十
六军所属新三十八师、新二十九师、新二十八师,此时尚未动员;炮兵为第五军炮兵团及炮十
三团第一营;空军为美空军志愿队。

#24 hanibal

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Posted 24 February 2006 - 06:35 PM

From Du Yuming memoirs
第一次动员:一九四一年十二月十一日,蒋介石令第六 军九十三师开车里,第六军第四
十九师以一个加强团开畹町归英缅军总司令胡敦指挥,准备开景东。十六日令第五军、第六军
动员入缅,协同英军作战。当第五军先头部队到达保山附近时,于十二月二十六日又以奉令
“英方表示第五军及第六军主力(欠九十三师及四十九师之一团)暂时毋庸入缅”而中止。十
二月二十九日又令第五军勿庸入缅,必要时须向东转运。

第二次动员:一九四二年二月一日令第六军集中芒市、遮放、龙陵,候英方派车接运入缅。
第三次动员:一九四二年二月十六日又奉令:“据英代表请求,仰光情况紧急,请速派第
五军入缅”;“所有野炮、战防炮均应随同出发,装甲兵团先作出发准备”

This kinda confirms your previous statement that the main units of the 6th Army entered Burma in February 1942. Most probably was 227th Regiment some sort of an advance force before the main units of the 6th Army followed in. Good to know.

------------
Positions:
1#敌情:日本十五军饭田样二郎所部等三十三师团在普罗
美以南地区;第五十五师团在同古以南地区;第十八师团在泰国景迈附近,一部主力于四月初
增援斯瓦战斗;第五十 六师团判断由仰光登陆,当时行动未明,以后集结于同古。至于空军和
炮兵、战车的情况,当时均不明。

2#友军:英缅军总司令亚历山大所部英缅军第一师(欠十三旅),英印军第十七师,英澳
军第六十三旅,英装甲车第七旅均在普罗美方面。英缅军第一师十三旅在景东、毛奇方面。英
空军飞机共四十五架,在马格威尔。

3#中国远征军:中国远征军第一路司令长官部所属部队第五军骑兵团附属工兵一部在皮尤
河附近;第二百师在同古(配属炮兵部队未到);第新二十二师、第九十六师由芒市于六日开
始以汽车运输;第六军所属第四十九师、暂五十五师、第九十三师在景东、毛奇一带;第六十
六军所属新三十八师、新二十九师、新二十八师,此时尚未动员;炮兵为第五军炮兵团及炮十
三团第一营;空军为美空军志愿队。


Thanks for this excerpt ahxiang, but it doesn't say anything what we already haven't said. 93rd Division was enthrusted the defence of the Golden Triangle. But there is nothing about a.) the names of the commanders of 227th, 228th and 229th Regiments, b.) where exactly were these regiments positioned at the time of Thai invasion in May 1942 and c.) nor anything about the fighting with the Thai.

In regard with this I am sending you a special link prepared by my Thai friend. Please check your pm.

#25 asiaticus

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Posted 11 October 2007 - 08:44 PM

The 200th Division never crossed paths with the Thai. Their retreat from Loliem was to the north and west away from the Thai.

They reached and crossed the Burma Road west of Hsipaw and proceaded north and were trying to cross a highway between Hsipaw and Moguk when they were intercepted by the Japanese.

Some discussion of the 200th Division in Burma here:

http://forum.axishis...ic.php?t=124083

#26 ahxiang

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Posted 15 October 2007 - 12:48 AM

This kinda confirms your previous statement that the main units of the 6th Army entered Burma in February 1942. Most probably was 227th Regiment some sort of an advance force before the main units of the 6th Army followed in. Good to know.
Thanks for this excerpt ahxiang, but it doesn't say anything what we already haven't said. 93rd Division was enthrusted the defence of the Golden Triangle. But there is nothing about a.) the names of the commanders of 227th, 228th and 229th Regiments, b.) where exactly were these regiments positioned at the time of Thai invasion in May 1942 and c.) nor anything about the fighting with the Thai.

In regard with this I am sending you a special link prepared by my Thai friend. Please check your pm.

I mistook Lu Guoquan's troops from 1950s as Yunnan nature. It was Central Army. It is just a co-incident that the same Division retreated to Golden Triangle , the same place it fought the war in 1942.

Details about Sino-Thai War below:

二战中的中泰之战----西双版纳边境抗战
1941年冬,由国军陆军第六军第93师第277团(团长李尚友)组成的加强团,由步乒指挥官刘观龙统率,自罗平出发。
11月12日至车里,14日低佛海(勐海),待命入缅。
12月8日,太平洋战争爆发,日军南进,泰国降日。刘观龙支队奉命率兵入缅,限令于22日抵勐永待命,协助英军防守。
1941 年12月16口,国军第6军第93师先头部队278团由开远出发,经月余的长途行军,至1942年1月21日和师司令部抵达车里,23日,至佛海驻扎。随奉英缅军总司令胡敦命令。派兵一团开往勐永,归刘观龙指挥,并接替刘支队勐永防务。刘支队前进到勐叭,接替英军勐叭至打其力防务。师司令部奉命后,派 278团(团长梁天荣)由车里经大勐龙出国。迳开勐永。

师部(师长吕国铨、副师长彭佐熙)及279团(团长吕维英)也于当天抵景栋。所有景栋土邦防务,皆由93师负责。
1942年3月8日,日军攻陷缅甸首都仰光。
5月,缅战失利,以上各部于5月18日前撤离景栋,退保国境。敌军害怕遭伏击,不敢冒险前进,迟滞至6月5日才开入景栋城。
1942年12月18日——1943年1月5日,278团反击敌人阵地失利,伤亡惨重,粱天荣奉令中止攻击,退保勐龙。
1942年7月6日,泰国傀儡军空军遍炸车里(景洪)、佛海(勐海)、南峤(勐遮,1959年并入勐海县),使人民的生命财产造成产重损失。
1943年1月,日军指挥的泰国傀儡军大举进犯。分兵六路,陷勐麻;并进据打洛。一部袭南冻及小勐嵩;一部攻占我58号界桩各高地;企图直趋车里,占领十二版纳,我军分道阻击,敌未得逞。
我军判明敌人的企图后,即于27日,抽调守备打洛的277团主力,星夜横出大勐龙地区,与278团协力,对进犯之敌采取攻势,副师长彭佐熙亲临前线督战。
大勐龙方面一线,自副师长彭佐熙亲临前线指挥之后,士气大振。2月1日午夜后一时左右,对58号界桩附近之敌,发动总攻,并包抄敌后,拟生俘其众,鏖战三昼夜,敌因交通方便,增援迅速,屡进屡退,敌亡约6000人后,退守原阵地。此役自1942年12月11日起至 1943年2月4日止,鏖战50余日,我方伤亡2000余人。此后,成对峙状态。
1945年8月14日,日本宣告投降,抗日战争胜利结束。
同年9月4日,国军第93师除留一营警备车里、佛海、南峤外,277团由勐龙出发,5日第278团由南峤出发,13日第279团由勐混出发,师司令部于18日由佛海出发到老挝之行政首都永珍(即万象)接受日军投降。

#27 ahxiang

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Posted 04 July 2009 - 09:45 PM

While the war veterans in US and elsewhere were honored, Chian's wartime heroes were forgotten. I like to add something here about Chinese prisoners of war who had died in building the River Kawai. According to some Chinese who visited Burma, there were thousands of Chinese prisoners from Gan Lichu's 6th Corps, who were captured by Japanese and ultimately died in similar scenarios as British-Australian prisoners of war in building the raiways and River Kawai in Burma. They need to be remembered, not forgotten.




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